Diploma project - Design of a specialized center for the repair of road construction equipment on the basis of a taxi park in Nizhny Tagil
- Added: 06.03.2015
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1. Organizational Part
1.1 Purpose of the machine, scope of application
1.2 Characteristics of machines
1.3 Maintenance and Maintenance Organization
1.4 Environmental protection
2 Process Part
2.1 Determination of maintenance quantity for 2013
2.2 Determination of labor intensity of performed works
2.3 Production program and scope of work performed by the site as per
TO and R machines
2.4 Determination of total labour intensity of all maintenance and maintenance
2.5 Cost distribution during maintenance
2.6 Determination of labor intensity during TR execution
2.7 Determination of time funds of workers and equipment
2.8 Determination of the number of production workers: ITR, MOS, UPC
2.9 Distribution of workers for maintenance and maintenance zone
2.10 Determining Equipment Requirements
2.11 Calculation of number of posts in maintenance area
2.12 Calculation of number of posts in TR area
2.13 Calculation of areas of production premises
2.14 Determination of annual power consumption
2.15 Job Instruction for Repair of Part "Cam Shaft UTN-5"
2.16 Selection of mode parameters for vibration surfacing
2.17 Description of operating equipment in the area
List of sources used
The content of the diploma project considers the technical layout of the site in N. Tagil for the maintenance and maintenance of the road equipment park.
The intensive development of construction production and the reduction of the commissioning time for new residential buildings, factories and factories, railways and roads, gas and oil pipelines require accelerated execution of large volumes and complex mechanization of earthworks, a significant proportion of which are carried out by bulldozers, motor graders, staplers, excavators, graders. Considerable importance is attached to the use of these machines in mining, the production of building materials and in agricultural construction. In N. Tagil, huge areas are empty, which can be filled with gentle enterprises. In order to maintain the intensive used fleet of machines in good condition, prevent breakdowns and reduce operating costs, it is necessary to carry out regular maintenance and repair, which makes this topic relevant.
The object of the study is a fleet of earth-moving vehicles.
The subject of the study is the repair technology.
The purpose of the diploma project is the design of a specialized center for the repair of a park of road construction equipment on the basis of a taxi park in the city of N. Tagil.
Objectives of the diploma project:
make an analysis of the operation of earth-moving machines;
analyze the organizational form of maintenance and repair of earth-moving vehicles;
analyze the content and technology of maintenance and repair works;
Select and familiarize yourself with the equipment;
design the composition of work performers;
Design maintenance zones based on the rational use of space and industrial sanitation;
Design workplaces according to requirements;
develop the Job Instruction part "Cam shaft UTN5";
Consider occupational safety measures at the designed site.
1.1 Purpose of the machine, scope of application
Bulldozer is an earth-moving transport machine performing the following types of construction work: clearing the territory from the vegetal layer of soil, the remains of stumps, roots, planning the territory with cutting irregularities, filling the depressions and removing excess soil with its movement by 100150 m, building embankments and excavations during the construction of railways and highways; development of wide trenches and pits; erection of dams; development of soil on slopes; soil pupation and cleaning during excavator operation; backfilling of trenches; transportation of aggregates to receiving devices in warehouses of non-solid construction materials, etc. Heavy bulldozers are used when working on any soil, including rocks. The working equipment of the bulldozer consists of a wide dump equipped with knives, pushing bars with a frame and a dump control system. In the process of operation, when the bulldozer moves forward, the dump drops, while the knives cut into the ground and cut a 1525 cm thick layer of soil. To increase the productivity of the bulldozer when working on light soils, the dump is equipped with side openings.
Bulldozers are classified according to certain characteristics.
By type of running gear:
By type of control systems:
According to the design of the dump:
-is installed at an angle.
By traction force:
- light (50100 kN);
- average (100150 kN);
- heavy (150250 kN);
- superheavy (over 300 kN).
Scraper is an earth-moving transport machine designed for layer-by-layer development of soils up to 4 categories inclusive, moving soil from the face to the dump and filling in the dump with layers of given thickness, at the same time the scrapers partially compact the filled soil. The range of rational movement of soil by scrapers is 1.5... 3 km for self-propelled scrapers.
Scrapers are classified according to certain characteristics.
By bucket geometrical capacity:
- small-capacity scrapers (up to 3 m);
- medium-capacity scrapers (from 3 to 10 m3);
- large-capacity scrapers (more than 10 m).
According to the method of aggregation with the tractor:
- trailed fasteners (aggregated with tracked tractors);
- semi-trailer fasteners (aggregated with wheeled single-axle tractors).
According to the ladle loading method:
- scrapers loaded due to traction force of the base machine;
- forcibly loaded scrapers;
- scrapers loaded by means of a scraper elevator;
According to method of rock unloading from ladle:
- scrapers with free (dump) loading (tipping of the ladle forward or backward);
- staplers with semi-forced loading (tilting the bottom and rear wall forward);
- forced loading braces (extension of rear wall forward).
By ladle design:
- scrapers with single-leaf bucket;
- scrapers with double-leaf bucket;
- scrapers with grayfire bucket;
- fasteners with telescopic bucket.
By the number of wheel axles:
- uniaxial scrapers;
- biaxial scrapers;
- three-axle scrapers.
Excavators are self-propelled earth-moving machines designed for digging and moving soil. There are single bucket excavators of periodic (cyclic) action with the main working element in the form of a ladle of a certain capacity and continuous excavators with multi-bucket, scraper and milling (seamless) working elements. Single-bucket excavators operate in separate repeatedly repeated cycles, during which operations of digging and moving soil are performed separately in sequence. During operation, the machine periodically moves a short distance to dig the next volumes of soil. Excavators of continuous action of digging and movement of soil carry out such excavators higher than single-bucket excavators, which spend about 2/3 of working time on movement of soil and working equipment.
By purpose, single-bucket excavators are divided into construction universal ones for earthworks and loading and unloading operations, quarries of construction materials, ore and coal deposits and overburden ones for the development of minerals by an open method. Excavators of continuous action as intended are divided into longitudinal digging machines for digging long recesses of rectangular and trapezoidal profile - trenches for pipelines and communications of various purposes (trench excavators), channels and water conduit (ducts), transverse digging for quarrying, planning and reclamation work, radial digging for overburden and quarrying work of a large volume.
In industry and civil engineering, single-bucket construction and trench excavators are mainly used.
Single-bucket construction excavators are classified according to the following features: by the type of running device - into caterpillar with a normal and enlarged supporting surface of caterpillars, pneumatic wheelers, on a special chassis of an automobile type, on the chassis of a truck or tractor; by type of drive - with single-engine (mechanical and hydromechanical) and multi-engine (hydraulic and electric) drive; by the design of the support turning device - by full turning (the turning angle of the working equipment in the plan is limited to 270; according to the method of working equipment suspension - with flexible suspension on rope polyspasts and with rigid suspension using hydraulic cylinders; by type of working equipment design - with articulated-lever and telescopic working equipment.
A grader is a trailed, semi-trailer or self-propelled technical means of cyclical action, equipped with a rotary metal dump, the position of which can change in a vertical and/or horizontal plane through a mechanical or hydraulic control system.
The main function of the grader is the layout (alignment) of soil, sand, crushed stone and other loose coatings and embankments. Also, the grader can be used in asphalting, for distributing asphalt concrete mixture over the surface.
Graders are classified according to the following characteristics.
According to the method of control and movement:
trailed grader - works in tandem with the base tractor. It has a front and rear axle between which a dump is located. The position of the dump is changed by the operator using a mechanical (steering system) or hydraulic (lever hydraulic system) control system. Characterized by low performance and low maneuverability;
semi-trailer grader - works in tandem with the base tractor. It consists of a main frame, a traction frame with a rotary mechanism, a dump and a hydraulic system. The dump is controlled from the cab of the base machine by means of a hydraulic system. Compared to a trailed grader, it is more maneuverable and productive;
self-propelled grader (auto grader) - has its own chassis and engine. The dump is located between the wheelbase of the car. The dump is controlled from the operator's cab. It has high maneuverability, high transport speed and productivity. It can be equipped with additional equipment. The most common type of grader.
By the number of wheel axles:
single-axis grader - this type is most common among semi-trailer mechanisms;
two-axle grader - can be both trailed and semi-trailer;
three-axis grader - refers only to self-propelled mechanisms;
Katok is a machine for tamping and compacting soil, asphalt, and so on. The main part of the roller is a roller - a cylinder located instead of a wheel or wheels. With its mass, the roller compresses the compacted substance.
Rinks are classified according to certain characteristics .
According to the principle of compaction, road rinks are divided into:
- vibration rollers;
- static rollers;
- pulse rollers.
By the number of rollers, rinks are classified according to the following characteristics:
- single-waltz rollers;
- two-roll rollers;
- three-roller rollers.
Asphaltocladchik is a complex linear road construction machine. Asphalt liners are designed for laying layers of asphalt concrete pavement, which includes distribution and preliminary compaction of asphalt concrete mixture along the underlying layer of road clothing. Usually works in tandem with a truck supplying a mixture for it.
Classification by types: self-propelled, trailed. by type of undercarriage: caterpillar., wheeled, combined, rail..
Characteristics of machines
Dump width, m - 3.2
Weight, t - 17.5
Loosener - is
Dumping volume, m ³ - 3.95
tractor base - T-100M3
Base tractor DT-75
Running gear - caterpillar
Operating weight, t - 8.2
Engine power, hp - 0.2
Grip width, m - 2.1
Basic tractor - DT-75
Type of working elements control - Mechanical
Dump size, mm: length (without extension) height - 3000 * 400
Dumping, mm - 300
Mass of grader without tractor, t - 2.8
Speed, km/h - 3,597.9
Weight, t - 18
Number of rolls - 1
Diameter of rollers, m - 2.6
Number of rows/number of cams in the row - 11/18
Thickness of sealing layer, m - 0.3
Width of sealing strip, m - 2.6
Soil pressure, MPa - 5.756.9
Sealing surface of cam, m2 - 50.2 * 102
Dimension group - 3;
Running gear - tracked;
Operating weight, t - 14,2
Engine power, hp - 100
Ladle capacity, m3 - 0.65
Engine type - diesel
Mark - D-108-8
Power, kW 55 - 60.0
The running device is caterpillar.
- main - pneumatic
- auxiliary - lever
Speeds of movement, km/h - 1.7; 3,0
Rotating platform speed, rpm - 0.06; 0,1
Overcome slope of the path, hail. - 22
Pressure in pneumatic system, MPa - 0.7 - 0.8
Average pressure on soil, MPa - 0.065
Weight of excavator with direct shovel equipment, t - 21.2
Basic machine Tractor - T-180
Engine power - 132
Length, mm - 3640
Height, mm -1200
cutting angle, degrees - 55
lifting, mm - 700
lowering, mm - 400
Speed, km/h - 11.96
Overall dimensions, mm - 6590х3640х2625
Weight, t - 18.75
Asphalt laying DS-126A
Travel - caterpillar
Hopper capacity 8 t
The width of the laid strip is 3-3.75 m,
capacity - 150 t/h.
The D144 engine is used as a power plant.
When designing a site, it is necessary to take into account the requirements of the maintenance organization:
The operable condition of the rolling stock of vehicles, construction and special machines is ensured by carrying out maintenance and ongoing repairs and compliance with state standards, rules for the technical operation of rolling stock of road transport, construction and special machines and traffic rules.
Timely and high-quality maintenance in the established scope ensures high technical readiness of rolling stock of road transport, construction and special machines, reduces the need for repair.
Maintenance is designed to keep vehicles, construction and special machines in working condition and in proper appearance; ensuring reliability and economy of operation, traffic safety, environmental protection; reducing wear intensity of parts; preventions of refusals and malfunctions and also for their identification for the purpose of timely elimination. Maintenance is a preventive measure, carried out forcibly as planned, as a rule, without disassembling and removing units, units and parts from the transport. Maintenance is carried out according to the planuregraphy approved by the chief engineer of the enterprise.
Repair is designed to restore and maintain the operability of the rolling stock of road transport, construction and special machines, eliminate failures and faults that occurred in the operation or were detected during maintenance. Repair works are carried out both on demand, after the occurrence of the corresponding failure or malfunction, and forcibly according to the plan, after a certain mileage or operation time of the rolling stock. The second type of repair is planned and preventive.
Maintenance is divided into the following types:
- daily maintenance (ES);
- first maintenance (TO-1);
- second maintenance (TO-2);
- seasonal maintenance (CO).
Daily maintenance includes control aimed at ensuring traffic safety, as well as work to maintain the proper appearance, filling with fuel, oil and cooling liquid, and for some types of vehicles, construction machines - body sanitation. Washing is carried out according to the need depending on climatic and seasonal conditions in order to ensure sanitary requirements and proper appearance. Daily maintenance is performed after the operation of vehicles, construction machines on the line. The control of the technical condition before leaving the line, as well as when changing drivers on the line, is carried out by them at the expense of the preparatory and final time.
TO-1 and TO-2 include control diagnostics, fastening, adjustment, lubrication and other works aimed at preventing and detecting faults, reducing the intensity of deterioration in the technical condition of vehicles, construction and special machines, fuel economy and other operational materials.
Seasonal maintenance is carried out 2 times a year and includes work on the preparation of rolling stock of road transport, construction and special machines for operation in the cold and warm season. Seasonal maintenance includes operations for removal and installation of mounted equipment used seasonally, for preservation of machines and mounted equipment before putting them into long-term storage, for depreservation of equipment before putting it into operation. Seasonal maintenance is combined mainly with TO-2 and current repair with a corresponding increase in labor intensity.
Current repair (TR) by the nature of the work is divided into repairs performed during operation, i.e. on the machine itself, and repairs of units and assemblies removed from the machines. During the current repair, disassembly, locksmith, welding and other works are carried out related to the replacement of individual parts (except for basic) units and assemblies, which must work without failure until the next Maintenance-2 after repair.
The need for the current repair is revealed as a result of monitoring and monitoring the operation of machines on the line.
Repair of units, assemblies and systems of special machines is carried out by specialized teams. The professional and qualification composition of the teams of workers is established on a case-by-case basis depending on the accepted work technology, the capacity of the production base, the organization of production and the mode of operation of the enterprise. Each team is given a standardized task based on the request for ongoing repair. The issuance of standardized tasks to teams is carried out daily.
Each workplace should be equipped with a map of a comprehensive labor organization, which indicates the most rational methods and techniques of work, the sequence of work, conditions, norms and systems of labor remuneration, the procedure for servicing the workplace, and requirements for performers. Work at workplaces is performed by workers of appropriate qualification, familiarized with the rules of production and safety.
This diploma project contains the design of a specialized center for the repair of a fleet of road construction equipment at the abandoned base of the taxi park in N. Tagil, which is the goal.
To achieve this goal, the following objectives have been achieved:
analysis with the fleet of machines and their technical characteristics;
analysis of earth-moving machines operation was performed;
the forms of maintenance and repair, earth-moving vehicles are presented;
content and technology of maintenance and maintenance works are presented;
equipment and its technical characteristics are selected;
the composition of work performers is selected;
the maintenance zone is designed taking into account the rational use of space and rules of industrial sanitation;
organization of jobs according to the requirements;
labor protection measures at the specialized site are considered;
"UTN-5 cam shaft" part Job Instruction has been developed
Which makes it possible to consider the goal of the diploma project achieved.
PK1. Perform promotional works on maintenance and repair of lifting, construction, road machines and equipment in accordance with the requirements of technological processes.
PK2. Monitor the quality of maintenance of lifting, construction, road machinery and equipment.
PK3. Determine the technical condition of systems and mechanisms of lifting, construction, road machines and equipment.