Course project on the discipline of technology of construction of engineering structures
- Added: 05.02.2022
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Explanatory note to the course project on the discipline of technology of construction of engineering structures;
Technological map for the zero cycle of the engineering structure;
Item Definition and Activity Count
Selection of work methods
Selection of Work Methods
Determination of excavation quantities, labor costs
and machine time
Technology of construction and installation works
Definition of Work Quantities, Labor Costs and Machinery
Quality control of construction and installation works
Safety precautions for construction and installation
Labor protection during construction and installation
11Protection of the environment
List of sources used
Construction is one of the main areas of human production. As a result of construction production, completed construction products are created - a building or a construction of a certain functional purpose. The variety of structures of buildings and structures gives rise to the need to develop and apply a wide range of construction technologies. The leading element of any construction technology is the construction process.
The technology of construction processes considers the theoretical foundations, methods and methods of performing construction processes that ensure the treatment of building materials, semi-finished products and structures with a qualitative change in their condition, physical and mechanical properties, geometric dimensions in order to obtain products of the required quality. The basic principles of modern construction production are guided by a significant increase in labor productivity, improved labor protection for workers, greater attention to ecology and environmental protection.
The purpose of construction production is the construction of buildings and structures that are the final products of construction: residential buildings, civil buildings (schools, theaters, shops, etc.), enterprises of various industries, energy facilities, transport facilities, agricultural buildings, sports facilities and many other objects.
Currently, the use of new structures and materials is accompanied by the need to develop and use a wide range of construction technologies. The basis of any construction technology is the construction process.
The construction of the foundation, the future foundation and support of the entire building, is the first and most important stage in the construction process, thus - the zero cycle - the basis for the future reliability and durability of the building.
Zero cycle is up to 60% of the total construction work.
Strength characteristics, stability - all these indicators are laid down and based on a competently erected zero cycle. The reliability of the erected foundation determines the future durability of the building, its operational characteristics, the zero cycle is the first and most basic.
At the initial stage, it is planned to prepare the territory for future work on it.
In terms of labor intensity, earthworks require a lot of labor and time, so at the zero cycle they try to mechanize this process as much as possible, resorting to manual digging only in exceptional cases when there is a risk of damage to any underground communications.
Basically, due to its labor cost, earthworks are carried out mechanically, and manual work is allowed only in limited cases when it is necessary to bypass the existing communications or there are conditions that limit the maneuverability of special equipment.
The task of the foundation is to take over the entire load from the building and distribute it evenly on the base, taking into account the characteristics of the building, its purpose, the designer calculates the necessary foundation, in addition, if any rooms or rooms are organized in the basements, then it fundamentally performs an enclosing role.
The quality of foundation execution - from calculation to erection - directly affects the service life and operational problems of the entire building. The process of foundation arrangement shall be continuous from the moment of start of trenches digging, filling, compaction and paving device.
The course design provides for the following procedure:
- cutting of vegetable layer;
determining the size of the pit and the volume of earthworks;
excavation of pit soil by excavator, arrangement of exit into pit;
rework of soil manually.
arrangement of monolithic foundations.
- back filling of sinuses;
Professional composition of the team:
excavator driver 6p. – 1 persons
driver of bulldozer 5r. – 1 persons
dredger 3 p. – The 2nd persons.
-betoner 4 p. - 4chel.
-betoner 3p. - 4 people
This project was carried out for the execution of zero-cycle works: the installation of a pit and the construction of structures of the underground part of the structure.
Quality control of construction and installation works
The procedure for quality control and acceptance of earthworks performed during the development of excavations, erection of embankments, vertical layout, backfilling shall comply with the requirements of SNiP.
Prior to the start of earthworks, the site preparation envisaged by the project shall be performed; if necessary, planning; survey works with fixing on the ground of the axes of the structure and the boundary of excavations (embankments) with the preparation of an act and an executive diagram of the breakdown and binding to the control geodetic network; identification and designation on the ground of underground communications with coordination with the organizations operating them of the possibility of earthworks; identification and designation on the ground of reserves, temporary and permanent soil dumps.
When receiving earthworks, the availability of technical documentation, the quality of soils, the degree of their compaction, the shape and location of earthworks, the compliance of elevations, slopes, dimensions indicated in the project are checked.
The following documentation shall be provided by the Contractor when the earthworks are handed over:
- lists of permanent benchmarks and acts of geodetic breakdown of structures;
- working drawings with documents justifying the accepted changes;
- journals of works;
- acts of examination of hidden works;
-acts of laboratory tests of soils and materials used in the construction of embankments, for attaching slopes, etc.
The certificate of acceptance of completed earthworks shall contain: a list of the used technical documentation during the work; data on topographic, hydrogeological and soil conditions under which earthworks were carried out; instructions for the operation of facilities in special conditions; list of defects that do not interfere with the operation of the structure, indicating the period of their elimination.
The main works are preceded by preparatory works, which are carried out before the start of soil development. Preparatory work includes:
- surface water removal;
- access roads arrangement;
- geodetic surveys, which consist in the separation of axes, the arrangement of linings, as well as the transfer of layout axes to the lining;
- cleaning and layout of storage and installation sites;
All mechanized earthworks of zero cycle are obliged to perform mechanization management under a subcontract agreement with organizations of foundation construction trusts or organizations of civil trusts. At that, mechanization departments perform the following works:
cutting, moving, stacking and removal from the construction site of vegetal soil for transfer to the organization performing landscaping work. The use of vegetal soil suitable for landscaping for other purposes is prohibited;
backfilling of soil in trenches with compaction after laying of pipelines and in sinuses near underground headers from prefabricated elements;
Movement, installation and operation of machines near excavations (pits, trenches, ditches, etc.) with fixed slopes is allowed only outside the prism of soil collapse at the distance established by the project
During operation of the machines, measures must be taken to prevent their overturning or spontaneous movement under the influence of wind or in the presence of a slope.
When performing works using machines in protection areas of overhead power transmission lines, it is necessary to perform
GOST requirements. The General Contractor is obliged on its own and at its own expense to provide lighting of the territory of the construction site for earthworks in three shifts.
Mechanization departments hand over the excavation works performed by act to the general contractor.
Defects, deviations from projects and requirements of construction codes and regulations or process instructions identified during the control process shall be corrected before the beginning of the following operations (works).
The operating quality control of the excavation works shall include: checking the correct transfer of the actual trench axis and its
compliance with the design position;
check of elevations and strip width for rotor excavators operation (in accordance with the work execution projects);
check of trench bottom profile with measurement of its depth and design elevations, check of trench width along the bottom;
check of trench slopes depending on soil structure specified in the design;
checking the thickness of the filling layer at the bottom of the trench and the thickness of the pipe filling layer with soft soil;
monitoring the thickness of the backfilling layer and dumping of the pipeline with soil; check of elevations of embankment top of its width and slope slope;
Acceptance of completed earthworks is carried out by the quality control service with mandatory acceptance according to the following parameters of earthworks:
trench width along the bottom;
trench depth; slope value; profile of trench bottom;
elevation of the embankment top at backfilling with execution of the corresponding documentation.
Acceptance of completed earthworks shall be carried out by the State Commissions at commissioning of the entire pipeline (facility).
General requirements for prefabricated products, their storage and installation
The products shall have a passport, a clearly visible marking and an OTC stamp of the plant with the date of manufacture, applied with indelible paint, confirming the compliance of the products with the requirements of GOST and technical specifications. Edges of panels of external walls in the places provided by drawings of articles and components of structures shall be covered at the factory with sealing compound.
The quality of construction products supplied to the construction site and the compliance of their passport data to the project are checked by the engineering and technical employees of the construction site.
When accepting prefabricated elements, special attention should be paid to cracks and damages (edges), presence and correct arrangement of holes, embedded parts and lifting loops, quality of the surfaces of the articles and compliance of the surface color of the external panels with the approved standard. It is also necessary to check the presence of anti-corrosion coatings on the open surfaces of embedded steel parts provided for by the project.
Lifting loops shall be free of tears and other defects and shall conform to the design for steel grade, dimensions and position in the article.
If defects exceeding the specified tolerances are detected, it is necessary to call the CTC representative of the plant and draw up a rejection certificate
articles. Rejected items at acceptance shall be immediately replaced by the manufacturer.
The quality of foundation installation of any kind is monitored by checking the preparation of the foundation for the foundation. An act on the state of soils is drawn up, a conclusion is issued on the quality and readiness of the foundation for the foundation. Then, dimensions of foundation blocks are compared with their design parameters by means of measuring instruments, level of surface quality and appearance of blocks, correctness of their geometric shape and conformity of dimensions of documentation are determined. These parameters are also recorded in acts, a corresponding opinion is drawn up. Visual inspection makes it possible to detect sticking reinforcement, cracks and other defects. Acceptance of foundation blocks allows tolerances: 15 mm - length and width, 10 mm - height.
Acceptance of prefabricated foundations installation shall establish whether the working documentation corresponds to:
installation of prefabricated elements, including layout of blocks, dressing of joints;
vertical and horizontal cutting of foundations;
sealing of joints and joints;
position of passageways for underground utilities;
execution of sedimentary sutures.
Controlling actions involve the participation of a foreman, surveyor, representatives of technical supervision and the customer.
Tolerances of deviations of dimensions and position of the foundation from those provided by the design:
elevations of the upper support surfaces of the foundation - 10 mm;
displacement of axes of foundation blocks and sleeves in relation to
to layout axes - 13 mm;
foundation shell bottom elevation - 20 mm
Foundation installation involves control of accuracy of dressing and thickness of seams between them, quality of filling of seams between blocks and panels, refinement of verticality of surfaces and straightness of building corners, level of quality of anchoring of structures. It is unacceptable to match the joints of the first row of wall blocks and the joints of foundation blocks or cushions.
The axes of the foundation and wall structures can be offset, according to the tolerances, by ± 12 mm. Elevations of foundation support surfaces may be deviated by not more than 20 mm provided by the design.
Roulette, templates, plumbs, levels, geodetic instruments are used for measurements. The operational quality control of the foundation installation verifies the accuracy and strength of its installation, which allows further assembly of the structural elements of the object.
Upon delivery of completed objects, the construction organization (general contractor) is obliged to submit to the customer its technical documentation, the list of which is stipulated by the current rules.
On the basis of the task on the discipline "technology for the construction of engineering structures," I completed the technological map for the performance of zero-cycle work: earthworks on the arrangement of the pit and structures of the underground part of the structure were calculated and designed. During the development, the scope of construction and installation work was determined, the construction machines and mechanisms, devices, tools, labor intensity and duration of work required for these works were selected. Calculations and design of the Job Instruction are performed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP and GOST.
In the course of work, knowledge was fixed? received during training.
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