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Recovery boiler after Weltz furnace

  • Added: 27.01.2015
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Description

During operation of the Weltz furnace, the problem of cooling process gases using secondary energy resources can be solved only by installing a recovery boiler, which is considered in this diploma project

Project's Content

Name Size
icon ku-posle-velc-pechi.zip
1 MB
icon КУ после вельц-печи
icon 3 Автоматизация.DOC
56 KB
icon 5 БЖД новая.doc
405 KB
icon 5 Безопасность и экологичность проекта.DOC
188 KB
icon MU_DP_220440,050717_Ekonomika.doc
383 KB
icon Автоматика новая .doc
102 KB
icon Аннотация.DOC
22 KB
icon Ватман по экономике.doc
42 KB
icon Введение, основная часть.doc
303 KB
icon Заключение.DOC
32 KB
icon Расчет вредных выбросов.doc
79 KB
icon Список литературы.DOC
30 KB
icon чертежи
icon А3.2.cdw
47 KB
icon Дополнительные чертежи
icon 06 Автоматизация.dwg
186 KB
icon Ген. план.dwg
358 KB
icon Компановка оборудования.DWG
256 KB
icon Клапан ограничитель.cdw
65 KB
icon Компановка оборудования.cdw
100 KB
icon Разрез КУ.cdw
249 KB
icon Свод печи.cdw
258 KB
icon Схема гидравлическая.cdw
436 KB
icon Схема ленточного конвейера.cdw
67 KB
icon Экономика.DOC
334 KB
icon экономика
icon Обязательно прочти.doc
21 KB
icon продол. табл 19.doc
66 KB
icon табл 8 -19.doc
351 KB
icon табл по экономике с 20.doc
200 KB

Additional information

Introduction

One of the most important problems of non-ferrous metallurgy is the problem of processing zinc-containing materials in Weltspacks. In order to ensure a sharp increase in the amount of material processing, it is planned to introduce a complex of Weltspacks.

Currently, all Weltspechs of domestic and foreign non-ferrous metallurgy are operating according to the following scheme: a dust chamber, air-cooled risers, bag filters, a smoke pump and a chimney are installed sequentially along the gas flow.

This scheme currently does not justify itself to a sufficient extent, namely: it does not allow intensifying the welding process, using the heat of exhaust gases, makes it necessary to install a significant number of bag filters.

As the experience of operating the recovery boiler of the Weltz furnace shows, the problem of cooling process gases using secondary energy resources can only be solved by installing the recovery boiler

Veltsevanie is a widely used process for processing polymetallic wastes of metallurgical production: lead slags, copper production, with the aim of additional extraction of valuable residues. Processed products are mixed with crushed carbonaceous reducing fuel (coke, anthracite, etc.), which is the main source of heat in the process and is heated to 12001300 ˚S in a rotating horizontal tubular furnace (weltzpechi). At the same time, carbon consumption for reducing processes accounts for about 4550% of its total amount in the charge; the rest of the carbon burns with the oxygen of the furnace gases and creates heat to heat the charge. In addition, excess coke is used to maintain the necessary consistency. The furnaces have a length of 4090 m, a diameter of 2.53.2 m. They are installed with a slope of 3-5 degrees to ensure the transportation of material; rotation speed 1-2 rpm. The movement of gases and material in the furnace is counter-current; residence time of the material in the furnace is 2-3 hours.

Welz furnaces can be conditionally divided into three zones: preparatory, reaction and clinker formations.

Depending on the kind of raw material, the velcet can only work completely due to the combustible charge, or it is additionally heated continuously or periodically. Combustible gases (natural, gas-generating) liquid or dust-coal fuel are used as fuel for the sub-furnace. To improve the thermal performance of the furnaces, it is advisable to distribute the forced blast evenly along the length of the reaction zone, use natural gas or other fuel to replace part of the solid fuel reducing agent, as well as charge and refractory of improved quality.

General position

1.1 Description of the Weltz furnace

The Weltz process proceeds in furnaces 70 m long and 5.5 m in diameter. The design capacity of the furnace is 40 t/h for slag.

1.2 Method of calculation of weltz furnace

The calculation of Weltspeople is both verifiable and, when designing a new furnace, is reduced to the technical calculation of the charge, the compilation of the thermal balance and the determination of its dimensions at the given productivity and mineral and chemical compositions of the processed material based on the heat exchange processes in it or at the given dimensions to the determination of the furnace productivity.

1.2.1 Charge calculation

It is produced per 100 kg (count per dry mass) and starts by determining the amount of reducing fuel required for one process. To determine the metal sublimation process, it is sufficient that 10% of the reducing fuel of its mass is ≈ in the charge. However, due to the need to increase the refractory strength of the charge, based on factory practice, its amount is taken equal to 3450% of the mass of the charge.

During operation this value is specified.

Then yield and chemical composition and clinker yield are calculated. Based on these data, the amount and composition of flue gases are calculated.

Heat calculation of recovery boiler

2.1 Description of recovery boiler

Recovery boiler (CU) is a steam boiler in which hot process gases are used as a heat source. Steam boiler is used to produce steam with a pressure above atmospheric pressure used outside the boiler itself

Recovery boilers installed behind non-ferrous metallurgy furnaces have a thermal and technological purpose.

Gases of non-ferrous metallurgy furnaces are subject to further use. To do this, the gases must be cooled to a given temperature, which ensures the reliable operation of gas cleaning devices.

With good operation of the CP, the most complete use of the physical heat of the gases is made for the generation of steam and heated air.

The type selection and design of the KU installation should be made taking into account the physicochemical properties of the off-gases of a specific pyrometallurgical redistribution.

The power engineering unit is an integral part of the recovery boiler.

Recovery boiler (hereinafter referred to as KU) is designed for:

cooling of process gases, dust;

improving reliability of operation and improving operating conditions of the gas-flow path;

utilization of thermal energy of gases by steam generation;

collecting and organizing dust collection from gas ducts in order to return it to the technological cycle.

The CU is designed in the form of a horizontally located gas duct with enclosing walls and convective heating surfaces.

KU is designed in accordance with the requirements of the rules for the construction and safe operation of steam and water heating boilers of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Recovery boiler includes:

shielded dust chamber;

convective gas duct with convective heating surfaces - evaporative surfaces, economizer;

dust collection silos;

drum-separator with binding and reinforcement;

distributing and collecting manifolds with pipelines within the CP;

pneumatic pulse cleaning system;

instrumentation system (lower level) within CP;

frame with stairs and platforms (in KM stage).

The boiler has a length of ~ 22.5 m, a width (including panel collectors) of ~ 7.4 m, dimensions in the light (up to the bunker part) of ~ 7x6.3 m.

The side walls and the ceiling part of the boiler consist of smooth-walled all-welded panels, which are an 8 mm thick sheet of steel 20 (or 09G2C steel) with pipes welded to it from the outside ∅42kh5 with a pitch of 85 mm.

The radiation part of the gas duct (hereinafter referred to as the dust chamber) is ~ 9 m. The dust chamber adjoins the brick wall, into the hole of which weltzpock is introduced. During the design, the elevation of the axis of the welts - furnace + 10.050 m. The dust chamber is installed with a gap of 40 mm to the brick wall. The gap between the wall and the boiler screens is sealed by compensators.

The shielded ceiling, consisting of separate panels, with a hole for the introduction of a loading leak, has an elevation of + 13.2m.

The load-bearing nozzle for inlet of the stream is fixed on the boiler frame.

At a distance of ~ 7 m from the beginning of the boiler, an upper partition of thermosyphons is installed to deflect the flow of gases to the lower part of the boiler. At the bottom of the boiler, a baffle of bricks is installed on the dressing to deflect the gas flow into the upper convective part, where 36 blocks of thermosyphons are installed.

Thermosyphons are made of pipes of ∅89kh5 mm with supply and discharge headers of ∅ 219x12 mm. Thermosyphon units are supported by boiler side panels through lower manifolds of thermosyphon coolers. The headers, tightly adjoining each other, form a gas-flooded ceiling part of the gas duct. The weight load of the units is transmitted through their headers to the end surfaces of the side panels of the gas duct. Rows of thermosyphons are staggered.

To prevent thawing and heating of thermosyphons during periods of furnace and CP stops in winter, (bunker) panels of convective gas duct at the place of installation of thermosyphons have forced circulation of deaerated water, with a flow rate of at least 50 m/h.

The dust chamber and convective gas duct are made in the form of a single all-welded structure, at the same time each heat exchange panel is welded to adjacent panels with a butt joint during installation.

Convective gas duct with thermosyphons and metal enclosing surfaces adjoins economizer brickwork with 40 mm gap. Clearance between walls is sealed by compensator.

To cool process gases to 250 ° C, a water economizer is installed after the thermosyphon blocks, the total surface area of ​ ​ which is - 1172.5 m. The enclosing surfaces of the economizer are made of lightweight brick lined with metal sheet. Cleaning of water economizer heating surfaces is provided by vibration shaking method.

Gas duct from sheet is installed horizontally at economizer outlet.

Along the entire gas duct from elevation + 6.3 to elevation + 2.75, a bunker cooled part of the gas duct is installed, which also consists of separate panels. In the lower part, the dust removal system from the gas duct is connected to the hoppers.

Panels have panels for connection of pneumatic pulse cleaning chambers for cleaning of thermosyphons from dust.

The gas duct is installed on the frame through supporting structures at elevation + 11.9. Support structures are "paws" made of sheets and reinforced on boiler panels, supported by roller blocks installed on the building structures of the boiler frame. The fixed support is located in the middle of the gas duct, the extension of the gas duct will occur in different directions from the fixed support.

Drum-separator (hereinafter referred to as drum) V = 14.2 m3 is located in heated room for drum-separator at elevation 18.1 near axis A/1 and in axes 1012. All circulation flows are connected to the drum. Boiler water circulation is natural.

The dimensions of the drum room are 9 m x 6 m and 4 m high.

The control and instrumentation board of the recovery boiler is located in the control room of the furnace instrumentation.

Pre-assembly of the supply elements shall be carried out on the installation site in the installation blocks for the value of lifting capacity of the overhead crane Q = 5 ton. Crane hook elevation in the shop building shall be at least + 25.0m

To perceive the weight load and to maintain the CP, a frame with service platforms and stairs is installed. Two-branch posts with rigid frame units are provided in frame structure. Elevations of CP service platforms are set: + 11 .90m; + 8 .00m; + 5 .70m; 2.6 m

To calculate the load capacity of the framework and individual elements of the CP, the following maximum temporary values ​ ​ of filling the hoppers and surface contaminants are adopted, which must be specified by the Customer and the general designer before the working design according to the operation data of the CP behind the weltspeople.

Filling of uncooled hoppers with volume of 1.75m12 pcs with bulk weight of entrainments and excursions with γ = 1.2t/m-100%

Filling of the lower part of inclined bunker panels at altitudes 1 m from the place of connection of cooled panels and hoppers with bulk weight of entrainment and excursions with γ = 1.2t/m.

Contamination of the screen surfaces of the dust chamber and convective gas duct by excursions of thickness δ = 1020mm with γ = 1.5 t/m.

Contamination of thermosyphon and economizer surfaces with excesses of thickness δ = 1020 mm with γ = 1.5t/m.

KUTsM-B30/39-I - waste boiler for non-ferrous metallurgy of Weltspacks, maximum capacity - 30 t/h, pressure - 39 ata, first modification - I.

The design and layout of the recovery boiler provides for the following arrangement of equipment along the flow of flue gases: gases after the weltzbeach enter the dust brick chamber, then into a horizontal 4-way gas duct with normal coating with two-light and screen screens installed in it on forced circulation, then along a metal insulated gas duct (transition) the gases are sent to a vertical gas duct in which water economy units are installed.

In order to avoid gas vertical unfolding and intensification of heat transfer, 4 vertical flue gases are provided in the horizontal gas duct.

The change in the direction of movement of gases occurs due to the installation of transverse baffles.

For convenience of calculations and description of the structure, the horizontal gas duct of the recovery boiler is divided into 4 zones along the gas flow:

First move - zone I

Second move-zone II

Third move-zone III

Fourth Run - Zone IV

4 rows of evaporation screens with longitudinal flushing of heating surfaces by gases are installed in zone I.

In II, III, IV, one row of evaporation screens is installed with longitudinal washing of heating surfaces with flue gases.

Heating surfaces of I, II, III, IV zones are installed in horizontal gas duct of recovery boiler.

In total, 6 rows of screens are installed in the horizontal gas duct of the recovery boiler, the extreme screens of each row are used as screen screens, the remaining screens are two-light 3 transverse screen partitions.

In zone I, 3 rows of evaporation screens are installed in a row with a pitch of 250 mm.

In zone II, 1 row of evaporation screens with a pitch of 250 mm is installed

In III, IV zones it is installed along the 1 row of evaporation screens along the 26 of evaporation screens in a row with a pitch of 250 mm.

The evaporation screens of the entire recovery boiler are made of pipes d = 32x5, steel 20, coil type, on the forced circulation of boiler water .

Transverse screen partitions are made of pipes d = 32x5, steel 20, coil type, on forced circulation of boiler water.

6 sections of water economizer are installed in vertical gas duct of recovery boiler.

Sections of water economizer are made of screens made of pipes d = 28 x 3, steel 20, coil type.

In the first 3 sections of the water economizer (downstream of the exhaust gases), the screens are installed with a pitch of 190mm, in the next 3 sections the screens are installed with a pitch of 160mm.

The design of the recovery boiler provides for the possibility of changing the steps of the screens of the evaporation units of the water economizer without significant changes in its design.

Process control and automation

Automation is the use of a set of tools that allow you to carry out production processes without the direct participation of a person, but under his control. Automation of production processes leads to an increase in output, a decrease in cost and an improvement in product quality, reduces the number of maintenance personnel, increases the reliability and durability of machines, provides material savings, improves working and safety conditions.

Automation of parameters offers significant advantages:

reduces the number of workers, i.e. increases their productivity,

leads to a change in the nature of the work of the maintenance personnel,

increases accuracy of maintaining parameters of generated steam,

improves safety of work and reliability of equipment operation,

5) increases efficiency of recovery boiler operation

Automation of recovery boilers includes automatic regulation, remote control, process protection, heat control, process interlocks and alarms.

3.1 Process Automation

The development of the automation industry, the expansion of the range and the improvement of the reliability of the devices produced will allow the widespread introduction of automatic control of boiler room equipment. At the same time, the efficiency of boiler plants is increased, the labor of operational personnel is facilitated, and staff are reduced. Considering that up to 50% of fuel produced in the country is burned in boiler houses, the economic effect of the introduction of automation is obvious.

Automation frees a person from the need to directly control the mechanisms. In the automated production process, the role of a person is reduced to setting up, adjusting, maintaining and monitoring the automation means. If mechanization facilitates the physical work of a person, then automation is aimed at facilitating mental work as well. Operation of automation means requires high technical qualification from maintenance personnel.

In terms of automation, thermal power engineering occupies one of the leading places among other industries. Thermal power plants are characterized by the continuity of their processes. At the same time, the generation of electric and thermal energy at any time must correspond to consumption (load). Almost all operations at thermal power plants are mechanized, and transitional processes in them develop relatively quickly. This explains the high development of automation in thermal power engineering.

The automation of steam generators offers significant advantages:

reduces the number of service personnel, i.e. increases productivity;

leads to a change in the nature and easier work of service personnel;

increases the number of maintaining parameters of the generated steam;

improves safety of work and reliability of equipment operation;

increases efficiency of steam generator operation.

Automation of steam generators includes automatic regulation, remote control, process protection, heat control, process interlocks and alarm.

Automatic control ensures normal flow of continuous processes into the steam generator (water supply, combustion, steam overheating, etc.). Remote control allows the duty personnel to start and stop the steam generator plant, as well as switch and adjust its mechanisms at a distance, from the console where the control devices are concentrated.

Process protection automatically prevents the occurrence and development of accidents in case of violations of the normal operation mode of the steam generator and auxiliary equipment. Depending on the nature of the violation, the protection stops the steam generator, reduces its load or performs local (local) separations that prevent the development of the accident.

Thermal control of the operation of the steam generator and equipment is carried out using showing and self-recording devices, acting automatically. Devices conduct continuous monitoring of processes occurring in a steam generator plant, or are connected to a measurement object by maintenance personnel or an information computer. Process monitoring devices are placed on the panels of the control board as far as possible for observation and maintenance.

Process interlocks are performed in the specified sequence of operations during start-up and shutdown of steam generator plant mechanisms, as well as in cases of process protection actuation. Interlocks exclude incorrect operations when servicing a steam generator plant, provide disconnection in the necessary sequence of equipment in case of an accident.

The installation of the process alarm unit informs the duty personnel about the state of the equipment (in operation, stopped, etc.), warns about the approach of the parameter to a dangerous value, reports about the occurrence of an emergency state of the steam generator or its equipment. Light and sound alarms are used.

3.2 Recovery boilers as control object

The peculiarities of the process in which KU is involved impose certain requirements on the task of managing them. The main feature that distinguishes the recovery boiler from conventional industrial boilers is that the leading controlled parameter is not steam generation, which determines the consumption of the necessary fuel energy, but the amount of energy introduced by the flow of exhaust process gases and determines steam generation as the reaction of the recovery boiler to the thermal operation mode set by the process unit. In conventional furnace boilers, the flow of fuel and air is controlled and the volume and temperature of the gases at the end of the furnace are obtained, which allow the formation of steam of the necessary quality and in the necessary amount. In recovery boilers, vice versa, gas flow rate and temperature are set; production of steam of specified quality under specified conditions should be ensured; amount of steam corresponds to energy supplied to working medium (water) by gases discharged from process units. Thus, the control of the recovery boiler is to ensure a reliable disposal of the heat of the off-gas of the process unit by forming an appropriate amount of steam of the specified parameters (pressure and overheating temperature ).

3.3 Automatic regulation

Automatic control ensures continuous processes in the recovery boiler. The recovery boiler RKF25/13-40 provides for automatic control of the following processes:

- supply the CP with water;

- pressure in the drum;

- flow rate of continuous blowing;

- discharge in the gas duct before the CP;

- service water flow through economizer.

The power supply is controlled according to the water level in the drum by the power supply regulator according to the three-pulse scheme. The control valves are included in the set of valves of the power supply unit supplied by the KU manufacturer.

The pressure control in the KP drum is carried out using the system pressure regulator "to itself" (without installation of the system pressure regulator "to itself" on the KP steam line, automatic pressure control is impossible), installed by the General Designer on the main steam line in a place convenient for maintenance.

Control of continuous blowdown flow rate is carried out according to the ratio "Steam flow rate - blowdown flow rate" with correction by salt content.

The control of vacuum in the gas duct before the CP is carried out by the regulator acting on the actuators of the guide vanes of the smoke pumps.

Service water flow rate is controlled by the regulator action on the control valves installed on the service water pipeline supplying the service water to the economizer.

Temperature is measured by chromium-aluminum thermocouples, thermocouple readings are transmitted to the MVT5210 self-recording twelve-point (or six-point) potentiometer.

Automatic temperature control is performed by changing the amount of concentrate (gas) supplied to the recovery boiler.

The measuring element of the regulator is a chromium-aluminum thermocouple installed in the upper part of the drum-separator.

The thermocouple works with the SIEMENS industrial computer, which transmits the control signal to the VLT frequency converter.

The automatic temperature control circuit is not connected to the air flow control unit supplied to the recovery boiler.

Pressure under the arch of a copper utilizer is controlled by the recording RP160 device with scale О±25 of mm of waters. st. Connected to the primary device of "Sapphir22DIV" type.

Control of the gas pressure under the digester roof can be carried out remotely: buttons installed on the control panel, the degree of opening or closing of the throttle in the gas duct before the extractors.

Automatic control provides manual disconnection from any automatic thread. In normal mode, automatic disconnection is performed at all filled hoppers of the recovery boiler with time delay from the beginning of the feeder stop to the loading conveyor. Automatic actuation occurs when the level of concentrate in one of the hoppers of the recovery boiler decreases.

The level in the concentrate silo is measured by a set of instruments "VedapulsVedamet" with output to an industrial computer.

Automation of the process is also fixed by flags that give a pulse to the signal lamps installed on the central control board. To work on manual control, it is necessary to change all keys installed on the board from the "automatic" position to the "manual" position and then start all units separately directly in place.

3.4 Automatic Thermal Protection

Heat control of the operation of the recovery boiler and equipment is carried out using showing and self-recording devices, acting automatically. Devices carry out continuous monitoring of processes, which take place in recycling plant, or are connected to object of measurement by maintenance personnel or information-computing machine. Heat control devices are placed on panels, control boards as convenient as possible for observation and maintenance.

RKF25/13-40 recovery boiler provides the following protections:

3.4.1 When starting water from the CP - up to the lower limit level.

3.4.2 In case of KU overflow with water up to the upper limit level.

The upper limit water level in the drum is set during adjustment of the CP.

During adjustment with water up to the upper limit level, the emergency drain valve opens.

At subsequent level decrease - emergency drain is closed; if the level rise continues - when the emergency drain is fully opened - emergency protection is triggered.

3.4.3 When the temperature of the feedwater pump or smoke pump bearings rises to 600С, the standby mechanism is switched on and the operating mechanism is switched off.

If there is no backup, the protection is activated.

In case of protection actuations the CP is switched off.

At the same time, it is necessary to perform all measures for the emergency shutdown of the furnace and, if necessary, for its emptying from melting.

3.4.4 In all cases of protection actuation, a light signal is transmitted and a siren sounds.

3.5 Emergency-proof electrical interlocks

Process interlocks are performed in a given sequence of operations during start-up and shutdown of the disposal plant mechanisms, as well as in cases of process protection actuation. Electrical interlocks exclude incorrect operations during maintenance of the recycling plant, provide disconnection in the necessary sequence of equipment in case of an accident.

To prevent violations of the established sequence of starting and stopping of individual mechanisms, as well as prevention of emergency situations, the following electrical interlocks are provided:

3.5.1 In case of emergency deviation of the operating feed pump the standby one is activated; in case of failure to start the standby pump, the furnace is deflected by fuel and blast.

3.5.2 In case of emergency decrease of water level below the lower permissible level, the furnace is disconnected by fuel and blast.

3.6 Alarm

Process alarm devices inform the duty personnel about the state of the equipment (in operation, stopped, etc.), warn about the approach of the parameter to a dangerous value, report on the occurrence of an emergency state of the recovery boiler and its equipment. Sound and light alarms are used.

CP operation must be accompanied by signals supply on CP panel:

- light signals;

- actuation and removal of interlocks;

- state of pumps and smoke pumps motors;

- position of gate valves;

- light signals and siren sound;

- emergency disconnections of electric motors;

- limit deviations of the water level in the drum;

- excessive heating of feedwater pump bearings;

- excessive heating of smoke pump bearings;

- increase of gas temperature;

- high pressure in the drum;

- reduction of feed water pressure;

- absence of flow rate in service water economizer.

Sound and light signals on the furnace board:

- shutdown of the recovery boiler;

- notification of recovery boiler readiness for start-up

3.7 Remote control

Remote control allows the duty personnel to start and stop the disposal plant, as well as switch and adjust its mechanisms at a distance, from the console where the control devices are concentrated.

Remote control of the following mechanisms is provided from the recovery boiler board:

- guide mechanisms of smoke pumps;

- feed pumps;

- main steam gate valve;

- gate valve on power supply unit;

- emergency drain valve;

- continuous blowdown valve.

3.9 Schematic diagram of boiler unit thermal control

The schematic diagram of thermal control of the boiler unit operation is shown in the drawing. The unit has:

1) three points of measurement of pressure of working heat-feed water, steam in the boiler and in the common main;

2) two measuring points of feed water and steam flow;

3) one point for analysis of flue gas composition downstream the water economizer;

4) four temperature measurement points - gases downstream of the boiler and water economizer, feedwater and superheated steam;

5) three discharge points - in the furnace, behind the boiler and behind the water economizer.

Temperature and discharge measurements are combined each into one secondary device using a switch. The temperatures of the exhaust gases, the steam composition of the flue gases, the amount of water and steam are recorded; the quantity is added separately.

Three pressure gauges, two flow meters, gas analyzer, galvanometer and traction meter with switches are installed on the board; electric measuring devices for monitoring the operation of electric motors and control keys for the latter are also installed there. In addition to instruments on the shield, a local installation of instrumentation is often used: thermometers for measuring water temperatures, steam, pressure gauges and vacuometers for measuring pressure and vacuum; Traction gauges for measuring the discharge, pressure and gas analysers required not only for operation and periodic testing .

3.10 Structural diagram of the automated control system

In the structural diagram, the automated control system is performed on the structural and elementary basis of the computer equipment aggregate system and is intended for all-mode ACS of powerful units 300, 500, 800 1200 MW.

The main element of the system is the IVS, consisting of two subsystems - information (IP) and computational (VP).

The IP subsystem is autonomous and performs the functions of monitoring, signaling and recording, as well as preparing information for the AP. In the VP there is a central data collection and processing device that receives 1,5002,000 analog inputs and up to 1000 discrete ones. Polling cycles for most sensors of each type are 1 s, 15% of sensors of each type are polled in 0.2 s.

The input signals to the UI are converted into a digital code, scaled and transmitted to the UI.

The central data collection and processing device performs the following tasks: monitoring upon call of process parameters, generation of relay pulse for signalling, generation and output of control commands to the object, transmission of information on current values of input parameters and state of actuators to AR RAM.

3.11 Information functions of ACS

Parameters used for operational control of equipment operation are monitored by CRT on call to multi-scale devices. The operator monitors the call to the digital devices of the parameter of interest.

The most important parameters for equipment control, in addition to monitoring, are recorded by permanently connected self-recording devices.

3.12 APCS Computational Functions

The computing subsystem is a universal computing processor. Processor performance - up to 20 thousand short operations per second. The volume of all memory is up to 65 thousand words.

The calculation of technical and economic indicators (TEP) is the reporting information for the unit operator on the cost-effectiveness of the technological process. TET calculation results are used for operational control of power unit operation.

Improving the accuracy of machine calculation of power unit TEP depends on correct accounting of information by sensors .

The TEP calculation and equipment performance analysis program shall include thermodynamic equations of water and water vapor state,.

The TEP results are printed, the unit operator can get acquainted with the values ​ ​ of individual TEPs by digital devices.

3.13 Structure of ACS

To perform the above functions, the structure of the ACS includes the following technical means:

means of communication of the operator with the object of control and display of information: unit panel of operational control with mnemonic diagram; control panel with keys and other remote control devices;

means for monitoring process parameters: individual instruments; digital indicators;

signalling means;

continuous and discrete information sensors and communication channels for input of information into ACS;

remote control means: selective call control system;

autonomous automatic control systems;

actuators;

logical control means;

autonomous protection system, disconnecting or unloading equipment of the unit;

IVS - information and computer system;

Local monitoring and control systems for non-operational maintenance of the process mode.

ACS has the possibility of phased commissioning and expansion of system functions.

The introduction of the considered ACS at the power units should lead to optimal control of the modes, reduction of repair work, improvement of the operating culture, which will increase the reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

Drawings content

А3.2.cdw

А3.2.cdw

06 Автоматизация.dwg

Ген. план.dwg

Компановка оборудования.DWG

Клапан ограничитель.cdw

Клапан ограничитель.cdw

Компановка оборудования.cdw

Компановка оборудования.cdw

Разрез КУ.cdw

Разрез КУ.cdw

Свод печи.cdw

Свод печи.cdw

Схема гидравлическая.cdw

Схема гидравлическая.cdw

Схема ленточного конвейера.cdw

Схема ленточного конвейера.cdw

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