Multi-storey residential complex (Diploma project)
- Added: 12.07.2012
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Диплом Беляев М.А. ПС-03
1 Сравнение вариантов.doc
11 лист3в цвете.dwg
4. Тех раздел 2 Дополнение.doc
5 Безопасность жизнедеятельности.doc
Копия 6 Экономика 2!!!!!.doc
1. COMPARISON OF VERSIONS OF SPACE-PLANNING AND STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS OF BUILDINGS
1.1 Basic criteria for assessing the quality of a residential building
1.2 Basic criteria of buildings comfort level
1.3 Building Design Comparison
2. ARCHITECTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION SECTION
2.1 Climatic and geotechnical conditions
2.2 Heat Engineering Calculation of Enclosing Structures
2.3 Space-planning solution of the building
2.4 Structural solution of the building
3. DESIGN SECTION
3.1 Calculation of multi-storey building frame in Lira program
3.2 Calculation of cast-in-situ slab
3.3 Calculation of monolithic structural wall
4. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL SECTION
4.1 Job Instruction for Erection of Load-Bearing Structures of Monolithic Building
4.2 Work Schedule
4.3 Design of the object construction plan
5. SAFETY OF LIFE
5.1 Requirements for building safety at the stages of design, construction, operation
6. ECONOMIC DIVISION
6.1 Preparation of local estimates
6.2 Preparation of the volume estimate
6. LIST OF SOURCES USED
Geotechnical construction conditions
Engineering and geological work for the development of individual buildings is carried out, as a rule, simultaneously for the design building and working drawings, that is, in fact in one stage. A limited site is subject to study. The volume of work carried out on it depends on the complexity of engineering and geological conditions.
The engineering and geological conditions for the designed house in this project belong to category I, which is characterized as a site with advanced geology; layers lie horizontally; the bearing capacity of soils is beyond doubt; groundwater under foundations lies below the core; bulk soil capacity does not exceed 2 m.
When designing foundations and foundations, local construction conditions are taken into account, as well as existing experience in the design, construction and operation of structures in similar engineering, geological and hydrogeological conditions.
Engineering surveys for construction are carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNiP, state standards and other regulatory documents on engineering surveys and soil research for construction.
Assessment of engineering and geological conditions of the construction site
The main parameters of the mechanical properties of soils, which determine the bearing capacity of the bases and their deformation, are the strength and deformation characteristics of soils (angle of internal friction, specific adhesion to, module of soil deformation E). The result of the calculation of soil layers is the design soil resistance of the base R, kPa.
The characteristics of soils of natural and artificial origin are determined on the basis of their direct tests in field or laboratory conditions taking into account the possible change in soil humidity during the construction and operation of structures.
Assessment of physical and mechanical characteristics of soil layers is carried out in accordance with their occurrence in the base, making a conclusion on each layer on the possibility of its use as a natural base.
Space Planning Solution
Anyone who has achieved a certain level of well-being strives for an increased level of comfort and improved living conditions. In other words, comfortable housing is a material embodiment of one's own social status.
Any housing, whether a house or a regular apartment, is divided into zones by its inhabitants. In one place they cook food, in the other they sleep, in the third they work... Conditionally, functional zoning divides space into two parts: residential and public. The first includes bedrooms, nursery. To the second - the place where family members and guests gather the entrance hall, kitchen, living room, possibly a work room .
The classic layout option implies that the public zone is located near the entrance, and the residential one is in the depths of the apartment, where an outsider can only get with the permission and knowledge of the owners.
In Soviet times, zoning an apartment had its own features. Zones divided by functional criteria (bedroom, kitchen, etc.) were isolated. The Soviet layout did not involve either combining the kitchen with the living room, or two bathrooms. But if earlier the limit of dreams was the possession of an apartment with many isolated rooms, now the ideas about comfort have changed dramatically. Long corridors that "eat" gold meters are considered a "dead zone," and rooms that are incongruously elongated or compressed to the limits of one bed give rise to despondency and cause a lot of trouble when choosing furniture .
Therefore, there is a need for apartments of increased comfort. In which, instead of a narrow corridor, the hall will be mixed - a room from which you can not only get into any of the rooms, but also place some furniture without damaging the space for the aisles, a separate bathroom and toilet, spacious living rooms and kitchens in which you can also creatively approach the installation of furniture and other household items.
He began to return to the apartment life in pre-revolutionary spacious layouts .
To meet the need for comfortable, spacious and modern housing, this project designed a three-section 12-story residential building, which has 96 apartments of increased comfort.
The house is L-shaped in plan and consists of three sections.
The first floor of the building is non-residential. It will house offices and necessary for the normal service of residents of the complex of consumer services: fitness - center, grocery and household stores, travel agency, computer club and children's library.
The layout of the interior of the residential part of the house meets the requirements of the norms and SNiP 31012003 "Apartment buildings." Apartments are provided with convenient layout, with a full set of internal equipment, enlarged glazed loggias.
Apartments have a hall at the entrance to the apartment from which you can get to any of the rooms or to the bathroom or kitchen. Each room has built-in rooms in which things and other household items can be placed.
The residential building consists of three sections, each has a separate entrance and is equipped with two elevators .
• Section A
Section A is a rectangle in plan view and has dimensions in axes A - AND 22.4 m; in axes 1- 4 12.2 m. In this section on each floor there are 3 apartments: two two-room and one three-room. Two-bedroom apartments have a two-sided orientation of rooms. Each two-bedroom apartment has a wardrobe in the hall, with an area of 1.23 m2 for storing outerwear and a storage room, for household needs, with an area of 1.23 m2. The living room with an area of 17.02 m2 has three built-in rooms with a total area of 1.33 m2 and you-go on a balcony with an area of 3.59 m2. The bedroom area of 15.15 m2, also has built-in rooms with a total area of 1.04 m2. The apartments are equipped with a double bathroom, an area of 3.46 m2 and a toilet area of 1.49 m2. Ventilation units for exhaust ventilation are installed in the toilet and kitchen.
The three-bedroom apartments have a kitchen house, a square of 20.2 m2, which is a room for cooking and receiving guests. Such a solution is optimal with modern trends in the layout and arrangement of home comfort in the apartment. Kitchen - the living room has an auxiliary room with an area of 1.56 m2, which can accommodate a cutting table, a dishwasher, a cabinet for drying and storing dishes. The electric stove is located directly in the kitchen itself, so that it is under constant control of residents in accordance with fire safety requirements. Each electric stove is equipped with an exhaust device for removing unpleasant odors during the preparation of dinner. Also in the apartment there is an office with an area of 17.32 m2, for work at home and a bedroom, the same area. The bedroom and study have exits to balconies with an area of 3.59 m2.
Each room in the apartment is equipped with two built-in cabinets, an area of 0.52 m2 each.
• Section B
Section B has L-shape in plan and dimensions in axes I - H 18.6 m; in axes 1- 6 16.2 m. In this section on each floor there are 2 apartments: one-room and one three-room. The three-bedroom apartment has in the hall a wardrobe of 1.23 m2, a bathroom and a shower room of 2.59 m2, two toilets of 1.05 m2 each, and two built-in cabinets with a total area of 0.93 m2. Rooms have two-sided room orientation.
In the corner room there is a kitchen - a living room with an area of 28.27 m2, which has an auxiliary room, which is also necessary for this room. There is also access to a common, with a neighboring one-room apartment, balcony with an area of 12.94 m2. The bedroom with an area of 17.63 m2 is presented in the form of a square, on the left and right sides of the entrance there are built-in cabinets. The living room with an area of 26.88 m2 is designed for the daily stay of residents and can be both an additional sleeping room and a hall.
The one-bedroom apartment has a corner living room in the form of a square with an area of 21.57 m2, in which there is an exit to the common balcony.
The kitchen in this apartment is 15.65 m2, and in the hall there is a separate bathroom and toilet.
• Section B
Section B is an accurate mirror image of section A and has the same composition of rooms and rooms.
Job Instruction for Structural Erection
Scope of Application
The process map was developed for the construction of monolithic reinforced concrete structures (walls, floors) of a typical floor of a twelve-story residential building in a large-panel formwork.
The Job Instruction provides for the construction of monolithic reinforced concrete structures of internal bearing walls and floors using aluminum large-shield formwork of TsNIIOMTP AOZT structure.
The building has the following structural solutions:
• internal bearing walls - stiffening diaphragms made of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete 200mm thick;
• slabs - unrigged cast-in-situ reinforced concrete with a thickness of 120 mm.
The works considered by the Job Instruction include:
• installation of formwork;
• installation of penetrators;
• installation of valves;
• concreting of internal walls;
• concreting slabs;
• concreting of enclosing walls;
• dismantling of formwork.
Work is carried out in one shift in the summer.
When concreting structures at a negative temperature, traditional winter concreting methods are used.
A new design of a universal unified formwork made of light aluminum alloys is used: modular large-shield formwork for concreting walls and disassembly formwork of floors. The large-shield formwork consists of modular shields, the frame of which is made of aluminum alloys and a deck of laminated plywood with a thickness of 18mm. The set also includes braces for installation, straightening and fixing of boards, scaffolding for concreting, locks for connecting boards, brakes for perception of concrete mixture pressure, etc.
The formwork is assembled from boards, which are connected by locks, with alignment to the external surface of the profile and stops. Eccentric is used for clamping and fixing. The dimensions and arrangement of the projections for the installation of locks are unified, therefore all the main locks of foreign companies can be used (it is also possible to dock with the formwork panels of other companies). When used between panels, inserts use locks with a large base. Floor formwork consists of longitudinal and transverse frames with screw jacks, beams and forks for their installation. For the placement of workers, hinged inventory sites or scaffolds are provided.
When erecting a building, reinforcement in the form of separate rebars, grids and frames is used. It is envisaged that the nets will be manufactured at the factory, and installed directly at the construction site with a crane .
Procedure and organization of works performance
Prior to construction of above-ground part from monolithic
reinforced concrete must be made organizational
preparations in accordance with SNiP 12-01-2004
"Organization of construction." A typical floor is divided into 3 grabs. The size of the grip is taken as a section of the house, equal to one entrance.
Prior to the commencement of the construction of internal cast-in-situ concrete walls, the following works shall be performed: the completeness of the imported formwork and reinforcement shall be checked; the shields have been pre-assembled; internal wall axes are divided and the floor surface is leveled; marking of the wall position in accordance with the design; on the surface of the slab with paint, hairlines must be applied that fix the working position of the formwork; installation tooling and tool prepared; the base is cleaned of dirt and debris; equipment, equipment and accessories used in the course of work were checked and tested; reinforcement cleaned from rust; openings in the floor are covered with wooden shields.
Formwork shall be delivered to the construction site in complete, suitable for installation and operation, without additions and corrections. The formwork elements received to the construction site are placed in the area of the KB405 tower crane. All formwork elements shall be stored in the appropriate transport position, sorted by grade and type. It is necessary to store formwork elements under a canopy in conditions that prevent their damage. Shields are laid in stacks with a height of not more than 11.2 m on wooden gaskets. The remaining elements, depending on the dimensions and mass, are stacked in boxes.
Installation and removal of formwork is carried out using KB405 tower crane.
Large-shield formwork consists of large-size shields structurally connected to supporting elements, connection and fastening elements. The panels are equipped with concreting scaffolds, adjustment and installation jacks.
The design of the formwork boards provides for the possibility of their installation and connection to each other in a vertical and horizontal position.
Holes for suspension of brackets, ladders and for installation of braces and brackets are made in ribs of boards frame.
Installation of the formwork should be started by laying the concreted structure of the lighthouses along the entire contour. The inner face of the rack must coincide with the outer face of the concreted wall. After the lighthouse rivers are reconciled with bright paint, hairlines are applied on them indicating the boundary position of the formwork boards, after which the shields are mounted with a crane along the length of the wall. Shields of upper tier are installed on mounting scaffolds fixed to concreted wall. The layout of the boards and the specialization of the elements of the formwork of the walls of the standard floor are presented in the drawing. The correct position of the vertical planes is verified by the plumb, and the horizontal of the planes by the level or leveling.
The formwork of the walls is installed in two stages: first, the formwork of one side of the wall is mounted to the entire height of the floor, and after installing the reinforcement, the formwork of the second side is mounted.
Floor formwork consists of frames with jacks, longitudinal (160mm high) and transverse (140mm) beams and forks for their installation. Arrangement of floor formwork elements is shown in the drawing.
It is allowed to remove the formwork only after the concrete reaches the required strength, according to SNiP 3.03.0187 "Load-bearing and enclosing structures," and with the permission of the work manufacturer, approximately 70%.
Decoupling of formwork from concrete shall be performed using jacks. The concrete surface shall not be damaged during tearing. The use of cranes to tear off the formwork panels is prohibited.
After the formwork is removed, it is necessary to:
• perform visual inspection of formwork elements;
• clean all formwork elements from stuck concrete;
• grease the surface of decks, check and apply grease to screw connections;
• sort formwork elements by marks.
Before fittings are installed, it is necessary to:
• carefully check the formwork compliance with design dimensions and quality of its execution;
• draw up the certificate of formwork acceptance;
• prepare rigging equipment, tools and electric welding equipment for operation;
• clean the fittings from rust;
• close openings in floors with wooden shields or install temporary fencing.
Flat frames and grids are transported in packages. Spatial frames, in order to avoid deformation during transportation, are reinforced with wooden fasteners. Reinforcement bars are transported connected into packs, embedded parts - in boxes. Reinforcement frames and grids are attached to vehicles by means of surface twists or braces.
Formwork and fittings will be delivered to the construction site in the form of stacks and bundles weighing up to 5 tons by road - MAZ5335 with a carrying capacity of up to 8 tons. Internal body sizes: length - 4.96 m, width - 2.36 m, height - 0.68 m.
Reinforcement bars received on the construction site are laid on racks in closed warehouses sorted by grades, diameters, lengths, and the nets are stored rolled up in a vertical position. Flat grids and frames shall lie on the liners and gaskets with stacks in the area of the tower crane. The height of the stack shall not exceed 1.5 m.
Flat and spatial frames weighing up to 50 kg are supplied to the installation place by a tower crane in packs and installed manually. Individual rods are supplied to the installation place by bundles, grids using a crossbeam of three pieces.
Places of their location are marked on formwork before installation of reinforcement frames with chalk. For temporary attachment of reinforcement frames to the formwork, strubcins are used.
Temporary fixation of frames in vertical direction, alignment of curved outlets of reinforcement and establishment of axial mixing of welded rods is carried out by strubcins. After installation and alignment of frames, horizontal rods are tied to them one by one using wire twists.
To form protective layer between reinforcement and formwork fixators are installed with spacing for walls of 11.2m, floors of 0.81.0m.
Vertical docking of frames as well as horizontal spatial frames is provided by welding.
Acceptance of the installed reinforcement is carried out before laying of concrete mixture and is executed by act for hidden works. For this purpose external inspection and instrumental check of dimensions of structures according to drawings are carried out. The location of the frames, rods, their diameter, number and distance between them must exactly correspond to the design.
Welded joints, assemblies and seams made during installation of reinforcement are monitored by external inspection and selective tests.
11 лист3в цвете.dwg
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