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Calculation of pneumatic tester-dispenser with capacity of 350 kg/h.

  • Added: 18.05.2020
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The method of avoiding the use of yeast and chemical rippers consists in kneading the dough in a pressurized gas medium, and baking the products at normal pressure, when the gases dissolved inside the dough expand, thereby giving the necessary germination of the finished product.

Project's Content

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Additional information





1.1 General characteristics of bakery enterprises

1.2 Features of production and consumption of finished products

1.3 Stages of bread production process

1.4 Purpose, classification and modern designs of batch kneading machines

1.5 Patent study of the project



3.1 Process calculation

3.1.1 Working chamber capacity

3.1.2 Calculation of energy consumption balance

3.1.3 Calculation of electric motor power

3.2 Calculation of agitator

3.3 Kinematic calculation

3.3.1 Determination of rotation speed on shafts

3.3.2 Determination of shaft rotation speed

3.3.3 Determination of torque on shafts

3.3.4 Determination of capacity on shafts


4.1 Procedure and timing of production verification works and equipment adjustment

4.2 Peculiarities of labor protection in bakery enterprises

4.1 Duties of service personnel of bakery enterprises to ensure labor safety





Bread and bakery products are the basis of the food basket and are perceived not only as one of the main food products, but also as the basic value of culture, reproduction and health of the nation.

The quality of bread, a socially significant product, largely depends on the equipment on which it is baked. The range of equipment that is used at the stages of the technological cycle of bread production is very extensive: these are flour storage bins, flour seeders, ingredient mixers, conveyors, dough preparation machine complexes, cooling systems, packaging equipment, as well as racks from which customers take the finished product. [2]

The solution to the problem of food quality and safety depends not only on the change in the composition of the ingredients and the balance of the food structure, but also on the equipment that provides the required indicators. This task is especially acute in the bakery industry when developing an innovative technology for producing bakery products based on knock-down dough.

Despite the availability of modern technologies, our approach to food consumption is no different from the approach of the "Stone Age." Unless, the quality of the starting product, then it was much higher than today. For the normal functioning of the body, it is necessary to consume a completely certain set of easily digestible substances in the right amounts.

What we get with food, what is not enough in it, today no one has any idea. Hence the excessive consumption of food, with the gain of excess weight, for the body in search of the necessary substances, arouses appetite in us, hoping, in an additional portion of food, to find what it lacks for normal functioning, and not finding what it needs, makes us consume additional food, etc.

The creation of functional bakery products with increased nutritional and biological value is one of the priority areas of development in the field of food production.

The priority importance of grain processing products and, above all, bread products in human nutrition is determined by the fact that they satisfy up to 40% of the daily food demand, from 40% to 50% - in protein and carbohydrates. Each grain of any cereal crop is a natural storeroom of nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrates; vitamins, enzymes and other micronutrients, as well as ballast substances in the form of fiber. By dividing the grain into anatomical parts in the flour mill process, it is possible to concentrate these substances in one of the components. Subsequently, when designing new types of grain-based products from components, it is possible to create composites using them as raw materials with a given composition of biochemical elements.

An analysis of the structure of the assortment of bakery products, according to Rosstat, produced by industry enterprises in recent years, shows that it is bread that remains the main product of the entire bread group.

The task of improving the quality and expanding the range of bread is also relevant in modern conditions of bakery production. This task is complex and multifaceted. It includes many scientific, environmental, economic and social problems. An effective solution requires a serious intersectoral approach. One of the ways is to manage the quality of bread based on the analysis of the assortment and its innovative development.

Therefore, it is quite reasonable to purposefully introduce into the consumed product the entire list of necessary substances. Aerated bread products proposed for implementation are a very convenient basis in which you can purposefully lay everything you need. Finished products will be divided into different categories, taking into account the physiological characteristics of consumers. A mechanism will be established to determine which category a consumer belongs to.

The destructive effect of thermophilic yeast used in bread baking today is not only heard a lot, but also feels on itself, although such detrimental effects on our body as the destruction of the liver, and bone marrow, stimulation of the development of cancer tumors, etc., are not immediately felt. Nevertheless, we are used to consuming bread in the form in which, we have it today, and no one offers us any real alternative.

The way out is to achieve germination of the dough without the use of yeast and chemical rippers. Which actually offers this project in its initial phase, to create a universal food product.

The method of avoiding the use of yeast and chemical rippers consists in kneading the dough in a pressurized gas medium, and baking the products at normal pressure, when the gases dissolved inside the dough expand, thereby giving the necessary germination of the finished product.

This course project attempts to solve some of the problems highlighted in this section.


General characteristics of bakery enterprises

The improvement of dough preparation equipment is crucial for improving production efficiency and, above all, for increasing labor productivity in the bakery industry, intensifying technological processes, reducing the length of production cycles and reducing technological losses of raw materials.

Baking equipment is very diverse. It differs from each other in performance, principle of action, design [1; 4, 7].

The capacity of the entire line is determined by the capacity of the furnace. The line for the production of hearth bread is in-line and, the work of all equipment corresponds to the capacity of the oven. Therefore, during modernization, such a selection of equipment or its components is necessary, in which the selected mode of operation is not violated.

Features of production and consumption of finished products

Currently, two types of flow lines are used in bakery production, which differ in the degree of mechanization. The production of bakery products in the assortment is carried out on mechanized lines, which allow switching from the production of one type of product to the production of another within the assortment groups. Mass types of products (batons, moulds and round hearth bread) are produced on specialized complex-mechanized lines and automated lines.

The main processes of bakery production are kneading and fermentation of the recipe mixture-dough. When kneading, the components are mixed, the mixture is machined and saturated with air bubbles, moisture hydrolytically affects the dry components of the mixture, and a spongy dough frame is formed. Fermentation of the dough is caused by the vital activity of yeast, lactic acid and other bacteria. During fermentation, the test undergoes microbiological and enzymatic processes that change its physical properties. A capillary-porous structure is formed, held by an elastic-plastic skeleton, the pores of which are filled with gas consisting of carbon dioxide, water vapors, alcohol and other fermentation products. There is an accumulation of aromatic and taste substances that determine the consumer properties of bread.

Bakery products are produced in finished commercial and consumer form. The shelf life of bread without special packaging does not exceed 1... 2 days, so its production is organized in places of direct consumption. For transportation, hearth bread is laid on wooden trays, the latter are placed on racks or trolleys and transported by specialized cars.


It is no secret that healthy longevity for the consumer is considered the most important meaning of its creation and further existence. The need to study the problem was therefore urgent.

Bread and bakery products belong to basic goods, and bakery is considered a socially significant branch of the economy.

The range of bakery products in Pridnestrovie is characterized by great diversity. Currently, the production and consumption of non-traditional varieties of bread is increasing, the production of bread and bakery products with useful additives, including premium varieties, is developing.

The bread industry in Pridnestrovie is represented mainly by small and medium-sized businesses.

Now on the Transnistrian bread market there are the main types of bread (black, white, round, loaf and loaf), and the emerging premium category (bakery products with a limited shelf life, content of minerals and organic elements, low-calorie varieties, etc.).

In the first part of the course project, a literary and patent review was carried out, in which the dough mixing equipment was considered. Process flow analysis was performed and an operator model of the line was created. Patents related to dough kneading units are also considered, and technical justification of the developed object use is given.

Kinematic calculation of the drive mechanism and strength calculation of the shaft were made in the design part of the course design. Attached are drawings made in compliance with ESKD requirements.

In the process of studying the problem of work related to the germination of dough without the use of yeast and chemical rippers, we have proposed methods that help not only another technology of germination of dough, but also due to design advantages to increase line productivity.

The developed dough kneading machine allows not only to increase the line performance, but also to improve the product quality.

During the writing of the course project, I considered in detail the tasks set, such as the development of a method and device for loosening dough for birdless bakery products, which meets the modern requirements of the science of rational nutrition and healthy food, reduces production areas and the duration of the production process, improving the quality of bakery products, which contributes to the expansion of the range of dietary bakery products.

The technical task is achieved by the fact that the raw material for dough production is kneaded in carbonated water, besides, after carbon dioxide is supplied to the hermetically closed kneading vessel (creation of external pressure). Thus, the pressure of the gas supplied to the kneading vessel prevents degassing of the carbonated water prior to the end of the kneading process. During depressurization of the kneading vessel and subsequent baking, gas bubbles are released in the dough, and they expand under the influence of high temperature, and the dough loosens, forming a good porosity.

There is an opinion that the quality of bread depends on 10% of milling, 15% on grain and 75% on baker. This suggests the importance of test methods. A competent approach gives significant opportunities to obtain a special taste due to the balance of odors and the structure of the flesh. Various aroma compounds are formed or converted during the bread production process.

Enriching the consumer's body with the necessary vitamins and trace elements is a rather time-consuming activity that takes a lot of time and effort. That is why a pneumatic tester was created - a device for automating this difficult process.

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