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Reconstruction of the road section - Diploma project

  • Added: 09.07.2014
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Description

Thesis project. Drawings, Explanatory Note

Project's Content

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Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTION AREA

1.1. Climate

1.2. Terrain

1.2.1 Geotechnical conditions of erection of roadbed

1.2.2. Geotechnical conditions in pipe arrangement areas

1.3. Geology

1.4. Hydrology

1.5. Road-climatic chart and wind roses

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROAD UNDER CONSTRUCTION

2.1. Technical indicators of the road

2.2. Longitudinal profile

2.3. Typical Cross Profiles

2.4. Artificial structures

2.5. Roadwear

2.6. List of sources of road construction materials

3. ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES

3.1. List of artificial structures

3.2. Technology of reinforced concrete pipe arrangement

3.3. Calculation of squad composition

3.4. List of requirements for machines and machinery

3.5. Safety precautions for construction of reinforced concrete pipe

3.6 Quality Control

4. EARTH CLOTH

4.1. Preparatory work

4.2. Technology of erection of roadbed

4.3. Determination of excavation volumes in the line work area

4.4 Determination of the right-of-way bandwidth

4.5 Determination of layer-by-layer excavation volumes

4.6. Defining Flow Parameters

4.7. Defining Planning Areas

4.8. Determining Machine Performance

4.9 Development of process diagram of linear earthworks

4.10. Compile a comprehensive calculation of labor costs for concentrated work

4.11. Safety precautions for erection of roadbed

4.12. Quality Control

5. Roadwear

5.1 Construction of roadway

5.2. Physical and mechanical properties of road building materials

5.3 Determination of the required quantity of materials

5.4. Procedure of works execution

5.5. Determine the optimal grip length for a dedicated flow

5.6. Definition of detachment for arrangement of all layers of road clothing

at the selected flow rate

5.7. Calculation of labor costs for the construction of layers of road clothing

5.8. Occupational Safety and Safety in Road Construction

5.9. Quality Control

6. ORGANIZATION OF WORKS

6.1. Linkage of construction dates with road-climatic schedule

6.2. Location of production plant

6.3. Rationale for Flow Direction Selection

6.4 Building a Linear Schedule

6.5 Calculation of requirements for dump trucks

6.6 Calculation of field mill

7. Estimated Financial Calculation

8. Project Part

Design of ABZ

8. 1. Justification of ABZ placement

8.2. Sources of ABZ water and electricity supply. Regulatory requirements

8.3. Calculation of demand for products and raw materials

3. Rail Track Length Determination for Rail ABZ

8.4. Mineral material warehouses

8.5. Bitumokhranilishche

8.6. Determination of quantity of bitumen smelting plants

Calculation of warehouse and equipment for mineral powder supply

8.8. Calculation of the plant's demand for electric power and water

8.9. Process diagram of modified bitumen preparation

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

The Republic of Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia. This state is more than 5,000 km distant. from Western Europe, China and from Southeast Asian countries. The provision of freight transportation (except for gas and oil, which are transported, for the most part, through pipelines) for both international and local cargo, of the Republic of Kazakhstan depends to a large extent on the state of land transport (road and rail).

Since the Republic of Kazakhstan is between Russia and the countries of Central Asia in terms of territorial position, large volumes of freight traffic of these countries transit along its network of roads.

Over the past 10 years, the transport network of the Republic of Kazakhstan has deteriorated significantly due to the economic slowdown and insufficient funding for the repair and maintenance of roads.

The AtyrauAktau highway is part of a corridor connecting Russia and Central Asia. The length of the Aktau Atyrau highway is more than 800 km. and are the shortest route connecting Russia and Western Europe with the Central Asian countries.

Transport flow from Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Russia passes through this corridor. The road also serves the Tengiza oil fields and is therefore considered as a vital artery for attracting future investments in the region.

The basis of the diploma project for the reconstruction of the highway adopted a working project for the reconstruction of the AtyrauAktau highway, completed in 2003.

The working project provides for the reconstruction of road clothing with strengthening of the existing base and overpacking of the upper layer of the roadway, bringing the parameters of the road to the required category, the construction of new culverts, the arrangement of crossing and adjoining the road, the development of an environmental protection project, preliminary approvals have been made.

The position diagram of the highway route is given in Fig. 1.

1. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTION AREA

The territory of the route of the AtyrauAktau highway. The large size of the territory, its intra-continental closed position, orographic and climatic heterogeneity cause a wide variety of natural conditions.

The hydrographic network is represented in the form of permanent and temporary watercourses. An essential element in the hydrography of the territory under consideration are irrigation canals, as well as non-large channels formed in the places where underground and irrigation waters are released.

By the nature and features of hydrography, the area of ​ ​ the Atyrau Aktau line can be divided into two parts: mountain and foothill. The mountain part is characterized by a developed hydrographic network, which is an indicator of high watering. This is the catering area or river catchment area.

The foothills are distinguished by a more underdeveloped hydrographic network and a developed system of irrigation canals and aryks.

Road construction area - West Kazakhstan.

1.2.2. Engineering and geological conditions in pipe arrangement areas.

Engineering and geological conditions in the areas of pipe installation are represented by heavy loam, up to a depth of 1-2.5 m, then by sandy dusty plastic consistency layers of 3.010 m.

Soils on all bridges of medium and weak salinity. The aggressiveness of the medium (soils) in relation to W4 concrete in terms of waterproofness is highly aggressive.

When crossing the highway of temporary watercourses and lowering places, the project provides for the installation of new reinforced concrete pipes in the amount of 3 pieces .

1.3. Geology

In accordance with the Scheme of geological zoning of the territory of Western Kazakhstan, the highway AtyrauAktau successively crosses the Caspian depression, the Pre-Ustyurt plain, the Ustyurt plateau, the Mountain Mangyshlak and the South Mangyshlak plateau.

The Caspian lowland is characterized by an almost continuous development within its limits of precipitation of the Quaternary transgressions of the Caspian, mainly of the Khvalyn, represented by horizontal or very slightly damaged loose sandy-clay deposits.

According to the geological structure, the territory of the region belongs to the Turan Plain/24/. The Turan plate is part of the Epipaleozoic platform. In the west of the region is the sandy desert of Kyzylkum .

The complex of superimposed deflections is divided into three floors: lower, middle and upper. The lower floor is represented by red-colored sandstone-m terrigenous deposits, carbonate deposits and limestones. The middle floor includes carbonate marine sediments, the upper floor includes continental sediments accumulated in separate depressions (24).

In the west of the region - the steppe of Chardara. Sandy and loamy deposits prevail here.

The soil and vegetation cover of the plains is represented by serosemes, se-ro-brown, in places salt-marsh, saltwater, mountain-chestnut, and tar soils under the polynosolyanka and shrubby growth-body.

Quaternary deposits are widespread in Western Kazakhstan. With the exception of the steepest cliffs (chinks), they cover almost its entire territory with a cover from the first meters to the first tens of meters. Among the Quaternary sediments of Western Kazakhstan, various genetic types are developed: marine, alluvial, lake, alluvial, proluvial, ass, eluvial, deluvial, proluvial deluvial, soro-vine and tacyrus.

Lithologically, marine quaternary formations are represented by sands, clay-sand sediments, sand-pebble accumulations.

Alluvial deposits are distributed by sands, sandy loams, loams, clays.

The eluvial formations represented by the cloak of rubble, soup-this and loam with a thickness of usually about 0.54 m are developed on the Neogene limestones of the Ustyurt plateau and South Mangyshlaksky, as well as in Mountain Mangyshlak.

According to seismic zoning of the territory of the CIS, the surveyed area belongs to the 5-point seismic zone - the area is not seismic.

1.4. Hydrology

Hydrogeological conditions of the design area cover the deep zone of groundwater level.

Groundwater in the cones of the leader forms a continuous underground flow with a slope. Water lies in boulder-pebble rocks with a capacity of 20-100 m, which are replaced downstream by gravel-sandy and sandy sediments with interlayers of clays and loam.

Pressure waters are connected mainly with mandibular alluvial proluvial pebble deposits lying at a depth of 100150 m and having a power of 1520 m. To the center of the depression, the roof of the aquifer plunges to a depth of 185540 m. Pressure water is formed by filtration of surface water in the top part of the discharge cones, infiltration of atmospheric precipitation and flow of crack water.

The fractured-formation type of groundwater is distributed mainly in dislocated and cemented terrigenous and carbonate rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Fresh and brackish, groundwater, subartesian waters lie at depths from several meters to several hundred meters from the earth's surface. In mountainous areas, in sandstone distribution areas, waters of this type form sources or are opened by wells (24).

On the section of the AtyrauAktau highway (AtyrauDossor section), the channel of the left-bank sleeves of the delta river intersects with the highway. Ural R. Aktobe 1, p. Aktobe 2, p. Sokolok. The Caspian lowland is characterized by an abundance of extensive area-free weed decreases, which are areas of salt accumulation and seasonal humidification. Some of them are crossed by the highway. By the nature and degree of humidification, this section belongs to the first and second, and on the PC section 0 + 00PK45 + 30 to the third type of terrain.

1.5. Road-climatic chart and wind roses

According to the main indicators of climatic characteristics of the road construction area, a road-climatic schedule (Figure 2) and wind roses (Figure 3) were built.

2.2. Longitudinal profile

At the beginning of each reconstruction site, a kilometer column was adopted. The general direction of the road from west to east. The design position of the axis of the route coincides almost throughout the existing axis of the road, with the exception of the pipe locations, where the project provides for the displacement of the axis of the road towards the reconstructed tips and pipe extension. There are 54 turning angles in the repaired areas. Of these, 36 angles are corrective, their value does not exceed 1 degree. At the other angles of rotation, curves are inscribed with radii from 600 to 4000 m.

The longitudinal profile of the road section is quite constant. The existing height of the embankment in different areas is from 0.9 to 3.3 m.

Considering that the section PK0 + 00 - PK45 + 30 is subject to seasonal flooding, it provides for entrainment of the embankment height from 1.2 to 2.3 m.

On the section PK66 + 80 - PK100 + 00, the average height of the existing embankment is 0.9 m, which does not meet the requirements of the SNiP of the Republic of Kazakhstan 3.09.032003 in terms of snow content, as well as to improve the geometric parameters of the route in the profile, the height of the embankment increases to 2.0 m.

Sections of PC 0 + 00 PC 45 + 30 (4530 m) and PC 66 + 80 - PC 100 + 00 (3320) provide sections of linear work.

The section of PC 45 + 30 - PC 66 + 80 (2150 m) provides a flow of concentrated work with an embankment height of 3.3 m.

The total length of the linear work area is 7850 m, concentrated - 2150 m.

The value of longitudinal slopes varies from 0 to 3.1 ‰, the minimum radii of vertical curves: convex - 10,000 m, concave - 3,000 m, and curves in plan - 600 m, which meets the requirements of SNiP 3.09032003.

There are 3 small artificial structures on the concentrated work site - 2 reinforced concrete pipes with a diameter of 1.5 m and a reinforced concrete pipe with a diameter of 1.2 m. According to geological surveys, soil lies along the route - heavy loam. Groundwater depth is 1,6 m.

2.3. Typical Cross Profiles

Depending on the height of the embankment and the depth of excavation, the value of the land, as well as on soil conditions, taking into account the natural characteristics of the construction area, typical transverse profiles are used.

Cross profiles of the roadbed in the reconstructed area are provided by 3 types:

Type 1 PC 0 + 00 - PC 45 + 30. Fill height: existing - 1.2 m, design - 2.3 m. Slope laying: existing -1: 1.5, design 1:4 .

The design provides for a symmetrical double-sided expansion of the existing embankment with an increase in height and planting of slopes.

Type 2 (PC 45 + 30 66 + 80). A symmetrical two-sided expansion of the existing embankment with an increase in height and planting of slopes is provided (existing laying of slopes 1:3; design 1:4) without changing the existing height (3.3m).

Type 3 (PC 66 + 80 PC 100 + 00) Fill with height 2, 0m with laying of slopes 1:4. The design provides for an increase in the height of the embankment from 0.9 to 2, 0 m with planting of slopes (from 1: 1.5 to 1:4).

Given the flat terrain, the roadway on the reconstruction site is provided with embankments. There are no cuts or runs with zero elevations.

Considering flooding, as well as excessive salinity in the case of track soils, in some areas, route reserves for embankment plating are not provided. For this purpose concentrated reserves of soil located on PC 27 + 00 right 700 m and PC 75 + 00, right 150m are used .

When widening the roadbed, for the stability of the embankment soil, a device of slopes along the slopes of the existing embankment is provided.

Diagrams of transverse profiles of typical embankments and excavations are shown in Figures (4-8).

2.4. Artificial structures

Small drainage facilities are arranged in lower places of the longitudinal profile, along which it flows from rains or melting snow, as well as at the intersection of the road with streams.

On the road under construction, 3 small artificial structures were designed - 2 reinforced concrete pipes with a diameter of 1.5 m and a reinforced concrete pipe with a diameter of 1.2m. To increase the capacity of the structure without increasing the height of the embankment, a pipe with a diameter of 1.5m is arranged with multi-point round diameters with a flat conical support, foundation type I. The pipe is round without a foundation. All pipes are designed according to typical designs, including structures for strengthening the channel and slopes at the pipes//,//.

2.5. Roadwear

During the development of the working project for the reconstruction of the highway, calculations were made on the selection of the road surface structure taking into account the existing state of the coating, its constituent material, the strength characteristics of the coating and the working layer of the roadbed, the presence of local building materials.

The required modulus of elasticity of road clothing for repaired sections of the road of category III is determined according to the forecast of traffic intensity for the future (2005), in accordance with the Instruction on the design of non-rigid road clothing SNiP RK 3.03.192003 the composition is 270 MPa.

Existing road clothing - lightweight type with a coating of cold asphalt concrete (places - from a black-gravel mixture) with an average thickness of 8 cm.

The base of a sand-gravel mixture with a thickness of 1826 cm (average 22 cm).

Road clothes are in unsatisfactory condition: there are deep potholes on the surface, subsidence, dyeing, pro-longitudinal and transverse cracks, as well as gauge.

The content of organic binder in asphalt concrete is 5.66.2%, stone aggregate is characterized by the brand for frost resistance F25-F50, for strength 800-1000, for abrasion resistance I1H2, the content of dust-clay particles - 0.81.6%, for frost resistance F15-F25 - 600800, for abrasion resistance 2.

The design provides for the complete removal of the existing coating by milling, followed by repeated use as a material for the device of the upper monolithic layer of the base.

The existing base from the ASG is also painted and used partly for the new underlying layer (additive to the new ASG), as well as for the device of the shoulders.

The project envisages the construction of a new roadway of capital type designed for transport load of type A3 in accordance with SN RK 3.03192003 with modification and additions.

The following roadway design is adopted:

1. Underlying layer: ASG with addition of material of existing base 20 cm thick ECU 180 MPa;

2. Lower layer of coating: from crushed stone sand mixture (SHBS) with thickness of 20 cm, EUPR250 MPa;

3. Upper layer of the base: crushed stone sand mixture using milled asphalt concrete treated with 25% ash cement binder (4:1) 18 cm thick; EUPR700 MPa;

4. The lower layer of the coating is hot porous coarse asphalt concrete on BND bitumen 60/90 - 7 cm;

5. The upper layer of the coating is hot dense fine asphalt concrete type B on BND bitumen 60/90 - 5 cm;

6. Shoulders: lower layer - soil + PGS of existing base upper layer - GPS + milled asphalt concrete

The structure of the roadway is shown in Figure 7.

Drawings content

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