Diploma - production line for fodder flour and food fat with modernization of hammer crusher
- Added: 28.02.2014
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Thesis project. Complete set of drawings and note.
1. Analysis of production and economic activities of the enterprise
1.1. History of the enterprise
1.2. Energy supply of the enterprise
1.3. Technochemical, microbiological and hygienic
1.4.Marketing assessment of economic activity
2. Review of literature on the subject of the diploma project
2.1. Technological Ya8-FOB-M line for production of bone meal
and fat traps
2.2. Requirements for raw materials
3. Process Part
3.1. Process of bone fat and flour production
3.2.Compute and select equipment
4. Design Development
4.1.Base Design Design Selection
4.2. Purpose, arrangement and principle of mechanism operation
4.3.Compute and select bearings
4.4. Refined calculation of drawn shaft
4.5.Operations and Maintenance Rules
selected main process equipment
4.5.1. Selection of main process equipment
4.5.2. Calculation of annual number of repairs and inspections
of the main process equipment of the enterprise
4.5.3 Calculation of annual labour intensity of repairs and inspections
of the main process equipment of the enterprise
4.5.4. Calculation of required number of repair workers
4.5.5. Preparation of annual schedule of repairs and inspections
of the main process equipment of the enterprise
4.6. Business Case for Design Development
5. Project business case
6. Mechanical Process Design
7. Safety of life
Conclusions and proposals
List of literature
Recently, the processing of agricultural products in small-capacity workshops has become increasingly widespread in our country. The development of small meat processing shops solves a number of important problems, in particular, providing the population with a number of different products. And the construction of these workshops is much cheaper, and they are commissioned faster than the capacity at large meat processing plants.
But on the other hand, the development of small workshops creates new problems, including the rational use of raw materials in processing, compliance with technological, sanitary and hygienic and veterinary standards, as well as regulatory and technical documentation, training personnel, etc. However, these workshops exist and develop as an objective necessity of today.
For the production of grinding devices, machine-building plants produce a wide variety of machines and equipment, and on the line with the creation of new ones there is a continuous change and improvement of existing machines and an overall increase in their output.
The enormous costs associated with grinding processes, at the modern level of production development, cause an urgent need to develop fundamentally new methods of grinding materials, as well as to create new technologies and equipment based on them.
Most workshops are built without standard projects, are located in adapted rooms, are equipped mainly with decommissioned equipment.
It has been established that former carpenters, machine operators, electronics workers, teachers, people of other professions and generally "personnel" without any specialties are sometimes engaged in the manufacture of food products. In this regard, the lightness and carelessness is of great concern. You can understand the desire of these leaders to feed their workers, fellow countrymen. But this must be done in friendship with science, in accordance with veterinary and sanitary legislation, with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation, otherwise the consequences may be sad .
Crushing and grinding equipment has gone its historical way of development, based on the achievements of modern sciences. This is reflected in grinding principles such as ball, vibratory, self-grinding, percussion, impact centrifugal, jet and others.
I would like to draw attention to the need for strict compliance with veterinary legislation when directing raw materials to the production of animal fat. Checks show that slaughter products are not always examined for trichinellosis, insides are untimely extracted from carcasses of animals cut on farms; veterinary supervision of the work of dumpling shops is carried out sporadically, which is unacceptable. And this is not the fault, but rather the trouble of veterinary doctors, the load of which in livestock farms does not allow daily control over the work of dumpling workshops.
Only the assignment of a veterinary doctor to a specific meat processing plant with the assumption of completeness of personal responsibility for the veterinary and sanitary condition of the workshop can improve the matter.
Managers, as a rule, underestimate the danger to the health of consumers of violations of technological regimes and the role of production and laboratory control in preventing such violations and ensuring the epidemiological reliability of products. Microbiological control in most workshops is not organized at all, which excludes the possibility of an objective assessment of the epidemiological reliability of dumpling products and the level of sanitary culture of production.
All these facts show that the time has come when numerous meat processing plants should have one owner who would provide effective assistance to farms in the design, construction, equipment and installation of equipment, its adjustment and development, training and retraining of specialists, the supply of laboratory equipment, the development of regulatory and technical documentation and its delivery to each contractor.
Of course, assistance to farm managers is necessary, but much depends on themselves. What management assistance is needed to ensure that the raw material receipt, recipe journals, processing journals, and heat treatment are properly recorded first? It is extremely surprising that almost every farm has its own standards for meat output when cutting carcasses into sausages, as well as the output of finished products, which creates loopholes for abuse.
Based on the world experience, it is planned to bring the industry to a qualitatively new level, ensuring the restoration of the volumes of produced products, improving its quality, and significantly increasing the assortment and depth of raw materials processing.
To solve these problems, it is necessary to re-equip large meat processing plants and urban dairy plants, as well as significantly increase the technological level of equipment produced for small and medium-sized processing enterprises.
Almost all grinding methods are ineffective in many respects at the modern level of technology development. Therefore, in order to increase productivity, reduce metal consumption and material consumption, reduce capital costs, it is necessary to look for new ways to improve equipment for grinding materials.
Technochemical, microbiological and sanitary and hygienic production control
When making sausage products at all stages of production, input and intermediate control of quality and temperature indices of processing facilities, conditions and mode parameters of the technological process, as well as compliance with recipes is carried out. Along with technological control, sanitary and microbiological control of production is systematically carried out in accordance with the current instructions.
Boiled sausage products shall be produced in accordance with the requirements of the technical specifications, according to the technological instruction, in compliance with the "Sanitary Rules for Meat Industry Enterprises," approved in accordance with the established procedure. In accordance with the regulatory and technical documentation, the content of moisture, salt and nitrite is regulated in finished products (sausages), respectively, no more than,%: 60-70; 2 – 2,5; 0,005. In a warm period of time (May - September), an increase in the mass fraction of salt in the finished product by 0.2% is allowed.
Improvement of methods of control of conditions and mode parameters of technological processes, use of express methods of input and operational quality control of raw materials and products, including pH, structural and mechanical characteristics and color make it possible to quickly influence formation of quality of finished products and avoid formation of defects.
The main types of spoilage of sausage products are mold, rotten decomposition of proteins and burnishing of fat. The reasons for their occurrence may be the use of stale meat, oxidized fat, violation of raw material preparation regimes, mechanical and heat treatment, temperature, relative humidity and storage duration. The reason for the instability of the properties of sausages during storage may also be the high pH of the meat raw materials used. Prior to implementation sausage products, including sausages, are checked organoleptically and rejected, which do not meet the requirements of GOST 23670 79.
Sausage is not allowed for sale:
- with gray color of batons and gray spots in the section;
- with slips along the entire length of the bars (more than 10% of the entire batch);
- having contaminants on the shell;
- with swelling of fat and broth.
In sausage products, the content of toxic elements (mg/kg) is allowed, not more than: lead - 0.5; arsenic - 0.1; cadmium - 0.05; mercury - 0.03; copper - 5.0; zinc - 70.0; antibiotics: levomyticin, tetracycline group, grisine and bacitracin, respectively, less than (units per kg) - 10, 10, 500 and 20; nitrosamines (sum of NDMA and NDEA) - not more than 0.002 kg/kg, etc.
To monitor the quality of finished sausages (sausages), periodic, at least 10 days, analyses are carried out to determine the mass fraction of moisture, table salt, starch, sodium nitrite in the product, bacteriological analyses.
Veterinary and sanitary examination of sausage products is carried out in order to determine their benign quality and compliance of products produced from the enterprise with the requirements of existing standards and technical conditions. The benign quality of the finished product depends on the quality of the raw materials, compliance with technological production modes, as well as storage and sale conditions. It is determined by organoleptic, physicochemical and bacteriological indicators. Each batch of produced sausage products is subjected to technochemical control. At the same time compliance with recipe composition, organoleptic signs, in particular presence of production vices, is checked. Samples for the test are taken from each homogeneous batch of product. A homogeneous batch is considered sausage products of the same type, grade and name, produced during one shift, subjected to the same processing mode. During inspection, at least 10% of each batch of sausage products is subjected to external inspection.
Before organoleptic examination sausage bars are released from twine, shell ends are cut off, cut along diameter. When evaluating the appearance, attention is paid to the color, uniformity of color, structure, state of individual components. The presence of stickiness and dewatering is established by a slight touch of the fingers to the product. Consistency is determined by easy pressing of finger on fresh cut of bar, tiny mince - by careful breaking of bar cut. Sausage is cut into slices 3-4 mm thick for taste examination.
Sanitary and microbilogical control of sausage production is carried out systematically in accordance with the current instructions.
Tests from the equipment, stock, a container and other objects which are in rooms of shops select by method of washouts prior to work or after carrying out cleaning, pay special attention to grooves, deepenings, drains, cracks. The area from which the sample (flush) is taken must be at least 100 cm2. If more than 300 microorganisms are detected per 1 cm2 of the examined objects, thorough sanitary treatment is immediately carried out with repeated microbiological studies, which are carried out in accordance with the current GOST and instructions.
Microbiological indices of sausage products are determined by the current methods. In finished sausages, there should be no opportunistic and pathogenic microflora. At detection in boiled sausages and sausages of representatives of family of intestinal bacteria and lack of an unpleasant smell, deviations in a smell, color and taste direct to processing in the lowest grades with repeated thermal influence. With negative results, products are sold on a common basis.
Sanitary and hygienic production control
For the purpose of control of a sanitary condition of stock, the equipment of sausage production and identification of the reasons of possible microbic pollution of the developed products in sausage shops periodically, but at least once in 15 days, carry out microbiological analyses of washouts from the processing equipment, stock, a container, sanitary clothes and hands working, being guided at the same time by "By the instruction about an order of microbiological control in sausage production", approved in accordance with the established procedure.
The equipment is washed daily using alkaline solutions (soap-code, 0.5-2% soda ash solution, etc.). Cars and devices are disassembled before washing, removable parts are washed in baths. Preventive disinfection of equipment, utensils and technological equipment is carried out once a week or more often at the direction of the veterinary and sanitary service. In workshops with high sanitary regime, preventive disinfection is carried out daily. In the workshop for preparing raw smoked sausages, mince kneading baths are disinfected after each kneading, other equipment is daily. Vein and baking boards are to be sterilized with hot steam every day.
Small inventory is disinfected by immersion for 3-5 minutes in a bath with disinfection or sharp steam in chambers, or in sterilizers.
Process of bone fat and flour production
The process begins with the preparation of raw materials. The main raw materials in the production of food animals of melted fats include adipose tissue, skeletal bones. According to the type of raw materials from which adipose tissue is obtained, raw fat is divided into beef, lamb, pork. Taking into account peculiarities of processing, fatty acid composition and location in animal carcass raw fat is divided into 1st and 2nd groups. Raw fat with pathological changes, unsatisfactory organoleptic indicators, as well as mezzanine fat from cartilage skins are not allowed for processing for food purposes.
An important source of raw material for the production of melted fats is the bones of slaughter animals, the yield of which is 945% of the weight of the animal's carcass. The raw bone of the skeleton belongs to the 1st category, and the defatted bone belongs to the 2nd. Bone of the 1st category is used for production of food melted fat.
Extracting fat from bone. Food bone processing is given great attention in all countries. A large number of bone processing lines used both in Russia and abroad are known. They are proposed for production of not only food fat, but also bone flour, extraction cake, concentrated broth. These are Spomasz (Poland), Lildal (Denmark), Berlin Consalt (Germany), Wartex (Belgium), FMC (USA), Centrifuglow (Sweden), etc.
Substance of fat extraction from bone by wet method consists in the following. The raw material is contacted with water into which steam is bubbled, vibration oscillations are simultaneously applied, constant mixing occurs, as a result, fat is released from the bone and bone residue.
Domestic line Ya8FOB consists of bone grinder, elevator, vibration extractor, centrifugal separator, settling centrifuge and separator.
Fat is extracted from crushed bone in vibration extractor with water temperature 7585 ° C (ratio of water and bone mass 1:1) with gradual increase to 9095 ° C, at pressure 0.10.3 mPa, with oscillation frequency 25 Hz during 2 min. Fat mass is supplied from vibration extractor to washing separator, from which two fractions come out: bone and fat emulsion. The latter enters the centrifuge for separation of bone residue, water and fat. The method of digestion significantly affects the formation of the quality of the finished product. So, when fat is drained from crude fat of the 1st group at atmospheric pressure by a wet and dry method, high-grade fat is obtained; under excessive pressure and under vacuum - fat of the 1st grade and prefabricated. From a fleece obtained by deluge of fats of the highest grade, fat of the 1st grade; from a fleece obtained by digging fats of the 1st grade - prefabricated fat.
Refining of melted fats. Raw melted fats, as well as vegetable oils, contain a variety of impurities in a suspended, emulsified or dissolved state.
Mechanical impurities include skvara particles, water, and mineral salts. In the dissolved state are free fatty acids, pigments, phosphatides, vitamins, sterols, enzymes.
The main operations of refining melted fats are settling, including peeling, filtration, separation, neutralization, bleaching and deodorization. Refining melted fats has the same purpose as refining vegetable oils. After refining, the fat is sent for cooling.
Cooling the fat. This process has two objectives: preventing the development of oxidative processes and forming the necessary structural and plastic properties.
Glycerides, being polymorphic substances, form small crystals with rapid cooling, and fat acquires a uniform consistency and plastic properties. At a low rate of heat removal, large crystals are formed, which leads to the stratification of the crystallizing solid and the remaining liquid fraction. Depending on the type of fat, its purpose and the type of packaging, animal fats are subjected to one- or two-stage cooling. When packed into large containers (barrels), the fats undergo one cooling stage, when using consumer containers, the fats are cooled in two stages, the second stage being called supercooling.
For cooling fats, continuous coolers are used in which the fat does not have contact with air (D5FOP, "Titanium") and is cooled to an average of 38 ° C. For supercooling fat, the cooler "Astra" (Germany), "Votator" (England), ice generators are used. The fats have a lower temperature than after cooling to an average of 27 ° C.
After cooling and supercooling, the fat is sent for packing and packaging.
Packing and labeling of fat. To pack fat into packs, an APM machine designed for butter and AP1M for meat mince are used. To pack supercooled fat into cups of polyvinyl chloride weighing 250 and 400 g - M6ORV machine. Imported subcooling lines include packing machines. The most common packing of pork fat, new packaged form also produce beef and bone fats.
Food fats intended for sale in consumer containers are packed in parchment, aluminum capped foil weighing 250 g net, polyvinyl chloride film cups, metal and glass cans weighing 400, 450 g. The following mass deviations (in g) are allowed: 200 ± 3; 250 ±3; 300 ±3,5; 400 +4; 450 ±4,5; 2500 ±5; 7000 ±5.
Food animals melted fats are also packed in wooden filling barrels with a capacity of 25, 50, 100 and 120 dm3, in plywood stamped barrels or cardboard drums, plywood, cardboard boxes - no more than 25 kg.
Before filling with fat into barrels, boxes, drums, bags-inserts made of polymer film materials are placed; packagings may also be lined with parchment. The following deviations of net fat mass in barrels with a capacity of: 50 dm3 - 40 ± 0.5 kg are allowed; 100 dm3 - 80 ± 0.5 kg; 120 dm3 - 98 ± 0.5 kg.
Storage of food melted fats. Fats are stored at temperature not higher than 25 0C. The most suitable temperature is - 5 to - 8 ° C. At the same time, beef, lamb, pork, horse and bone fats in boxes or barrels are stored 6 months, metal cans - 24 months; prefabricated in barrels - 4 months, in consumer containers - 2 months. Fats with antioxidants in boxes and barrels store 24 months, in consumer containers - 3 months. The technological process for the production of frozen dumplings should be carried out in accordance with sanitary rules and with instructions on washing and preventive disinfection for meat industry enterprises.
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