Design of road transport enterprise for 110 KAMAZ-5320 vehicles
- Added: 09.07.2014
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Maintenance of the car in technically working order substantially depends on the level of development and operating conditions of the technological base of the enterprise of the road transport representing set of the buildings, constructions, the equipment, equipment and tool intended for the maintenance (M), the maintenance (M) and storage of the rolling stock.
The construction of new ones, the expansion, reconstruction and technical re-equipment of existing road transport enterprises should meet the modern requirements of scientific and technological progress and the conditions for the transition of the economy to market relations.
The efficiency of PTB development is largely determined by the quality of design solutions, which should provide:
- Implementation of science, technology, advanced national and foreign experience in projects;
- high efficiency of capital investments;
- High level of urban planning and architectural solutions;
- Rational use of land;
- minimal negative impact on the environment, as well as seismic resistance, explosion and fire safety of facilities.
Reducing labor-intensive work, equipping workplaces and posts with high-performance equipment should be considered as one of the main areas of technological progress in the creation and reconstruction
road transport enterprises.
The design of the enterprise is based on the technology and organization of maintenance and TR production. Enterprise Process Design refers to a process that includes:
- selection and justification of initial data for demand program calculation;
- calculation of program, production volumes and number of production personnel;
- selection and justification of the method of maintenance and maintenance organization;
- calculation of the number of posts and lines for maintenance and TR posts of rolling stock;
- determination of process equipment requirements;
- calculation of the level of mechanization of production processes;
- calculation of areas of production, storage and administrative - domestic premises;
The results of technological design serve as the basis for the development of other parts of the project (construction, electrical, etc.) and largely determine the quality of the project as a whole.
1.2 Calculation of machine maintenance and repair program.
The program and repair of cars is expressed in number of technical influences (EO, TO1, TO-2, D1, D2 and KR) for a cycle, year, day and change.
Seasonal maintenance (CO), carried out 2 times a year, is usually combined with TO-2 or TO-1 and is not considered as a separate type in the definition of the demand program.
For TR performed on demand, the number of impacts is not determined. Planning of rolling stock downtime and scope of work in TR is carried out based on the corresponding specific standards for 1000 km of mileage.
Since the ATP plan for the main indicators is set for the calendar year, the production program for each maintenance type is calculated for the year. The program serves as the basis for determining the annual volumes of ATP work and the required staff of workers.
The annual maintenance and repair program can be calculated by various methods: analytical, that is, using a system of equations and taking into account the time for decommissioning of rolling stock; using calculation tables and nomograms based on calculation equations. But all of them are based on the cycle calculation method, which is used in the design practice of ATP. At the same time, the cycle refers to the mileage or period of time from the beginning of operation of a new and overhauled car to its CG.
The cycle method of calculation of the production program involves selection and correction of the periodicity of TO1, TO2 and mileage to KR for the rolling stock of the designed ATP, calculation of the number of TC and TC per car per cycle, calculation of the transition coefficient from cycle to year and on its basis recalculation of the obtained values of the number of TC and Tper cycle for 1 car and the entire fleet per year.
The course design does not take into account car downtime due to road conditions, seasonal maintenance and preparation for periodic technical inspection.
1.2.4. Determination of the program of diagnostic impacts on the entire fleet for the year.
According to the Regulation, diagnostics as a separate type of service are not planned and work on the diagnosis of rolling stock is included in the scope of maintenance and maintenance work. At the same time, depending on the method of organization, cars can be diagnosed at separate posts or combined with the maintenance process. Therefore, in this case, the number of diagnostic effects is determined for the subsequent calculation of the diagnostic posts and their organization.
In accordance with the Regulation, ATP provides for the diagnosis of rolling stock D-1 and D-2.
Diagnostics D-1 is intended mainly for determination of technical condition of automotive units, assemblies and systems providing traffic safety. D-1 is usually conducted with a frequency of TO-1.
Based on the purpose and organization of diagnostics, D-1 is provided for cars at TO1, after TO-2 (for nodes and systems that ensure traffic safety, for checking the quality of work and final adjustments) and for TR (for nodes that ensure traffic safety).
The D-1 program for the entire fleet for the year (the number of cars diagnosed with TR is approximately 10% of the TO-1 program for the year):
ΑND-1g = ΑN1D1 + ΑN2D1 + ΑNTRD1 = ΑN1G + ΑN2G + 0, 1ΟN1G = 1.1 ΑN1G + ΑN2G,
ΑND-1g = 1, 1· 1275.12 + 425.04 = 1827.67
D-2 diagnostics are designed to determine the power and economic indicators of the car, as well as to detect TR volumes. D-2 is performed with TD-2 periodicity and in some cases at TR. Based on this, the D-2 program for the entire fleet of cars for the year is (the number of cars diagnosed with TR is accepted equal to 20% of the annual TO-2 program):
ΑND-2g = ΑN2D2 + ΑNTRD2 = ΑN2G + 0.2ΟN2G = 1.2 ΑN2G,
ΑND-2g = 1, 2· 425.04 = 510.04
1.2.5. Definition of daily maintenance and diagnostics program
The daily production program is a criterion for selecting the method of maintenance organization (on universal posts or flow lines) and serves as a baseline for calculating maintenance posts and lines.
By types THAT (EO, TO-1 and TO-2) and to diagnosing (D-1 and D-2) the daily production program is determined by expressions:
Nei = ΑNGi/DRAB.D i;
where DRAB.G i is the annual number of working days of the zone, site, designed to perform a particular type of maintenance and diagnosis of cars.
NEOc = ΑNGEos/DRAB.D = 31088.64/305 = 101.92
NEOt = ΣNГЕОт / DRAB.G =2623.1/305=8.6
NTO-1 = ΟNGTO1/DRAB.D = 1275.12/305 = 4.18
NTO-2 = ΑNGTO2/DRAB.G = 425.04/305 = 1.39
1.3 Calculation of technical impact volumes.
The annual scope of work for ATP is defined in man-hours and includes the scope of work for ES, TO1, TO-2, TR and self-service of the enterprise. Based on these volumes, the number of working production zones and sections is determined.
Calculation of annual volumes of EO, TO-1 and TO-2 is made based on the annual production program of this type and labor intensity of maintenance. The annual TR volume is determined from the annual mileage of the fleet of cars and the specific labor intensity of the TR per 1000 km of mileage.
1.3.1. Selection and adjustment of labour intensity standards.
To calculate the annual scope of works preliminary for the rolling stock of the designed ATP, we establish the normative labor intensity of maintenance and maintenance in accordance with the Regulation, and then adjust them to take into account specific operating conditions. Standards of labor intensity of maintenance and maintenance are established by the Regulation for the following set of conditions: 1 category of operation; basic car models; temperate climatic area; rolling stock mileage from the beginning of operation is equal to 5075% of mileage to overhaul; at ATP maintenance and repair of 200-300 units of rolling stock, which make up three technologically compatible groups, ATP is equipped with mechanization facilities according to the table of technological equipment .
For other conditions, the labor intensity standards for maintenance and maintenance are corrected by the corresponding factors:
tEO= tHEO·K2=0,35·1=0,35 person-h;
tTO-1= tHTO1·K2· K4 = 5.7· 1.0· 1.4 = 7.98 hours;
tTO-2= tHTO2·K2· K4 = 21, 6· 1, 0· 1.4 = 30, 24 hours;
tTP= tHTP·K1· K2· K3· K4· K5 = 5· 0.8· 1.0· 1.0· 1.4· 1.2 = 6.72 chelh/1000 km;
where K4, K5 are factors that take into account the number of technologically compatible and storage conditions of cars.
1.3.2. Annual volume for maintenance and maintenance.
The scope of work (in man-hours) for EOS, EOT, TO-1 and TO-2 (TEOsg, TEOtg, T1g, T2g) for the year is determined by the product of the number of maintenance for the normative (adjusted) value of labor intensity of this type of maintenance:
TEOs = ΑNEOc· tEOc=31088,64·0,35=10881,02 person-h
TEOt = ΣNЕОт · t EOt =2623,1·0,35=918,08 persons h
T1g = ΟN1g· tTO1g = 1275, 12· 7.98 = 10175.45 person-h
T2g = ΟN2g· tTO2g = 425, 04· 30.24 = 12853.2 person-h
TR annual scope of work (in man-hours) is determined from the expression:
TTRg = LG· AI· tTP/1000
TTRg = 49638, 75· 110· 6.72/1000 = 36692.96 person-hour.
1.5. Formation of production structure of technical service of ATP.
The ATP maintenance production structure is formed in the process of calculation of work quantities and number of workers and provides for:
- separation or combination of maintenance and diagnostics. During the separation, the corresponding share of maintenance labor intensity and the number of performers in the diagnostic area is allocated;
- combination of maintenance and related repairs. In this case, up to 20% of the volume of installation and adjustment works, the TR is transferred to the TO-2 team with a corresponding increase in the number of workers;
- handover of some maintenance works/in case of small programs/repair areas. If it is impossible to have in the team TO-1 or TO-2 workers fully loaded with maintenance of electrical equipment, fuel equipment and others, the scope of these works is transferred to the corresponding sections and departments;
- inclusion of self-service functions of the enterprise in the tasks of repair sections and branches. If the scope of work is small and it is impossible to have a department of the chief mechanic/fully loaded specialized workers, the scope of such work/mechanical, welding, etc ./can be transferred to the corresponding areas or departments of the main production with an increase in the number of workers and areas;
- integration of specialized areas into one production unit at low labour intensity. At the same time, the number of workers and areas are determined by the total volumes of work;
- distribution of the scope of work and number of workers according to production changes is carried out taking into account the mode of rolling stock operation and distribution of repair request flows;
- in two-shift operation, it is preferable to perform TO-2 in the first shift, and TO-1 in the second shift.
1.6. Justification of operating mode and accepted forms of organization
The operation mode of maintenance and maintenance production (number of shifts, their duration and distribution by changes in the volumes of each type of work) largely determines the parameters of the designed production and technical base (the number of posts and workplaces, the area of zones and compartments, the necessary technological equipment).
The more shifts and the more evenly distributed the volumes of maintenance and maintenance work, the less production capacity and capital investments are required for the construction of ATP.
The mode of operation and the forms of organization of production adopted depend on the following main factors:
- operation mode of rolling stock on the line (number of working days per year, shift of operation of machines, duration of operation on the line);
- the share of rolling stock not returning to the enterprise daily (long-distance transportation, work at other enterprises);
- daily maintenance requirements (washing, cleaning, etc.), depending on the types of transportation and climatic conditions;
- Availability of production facilities and restrictions on their development;
- Opportunities to attract workers to work in the evening and at night.
The longer the daily operating time of the rolling stock, the less time remains for the technical service of the ATP to perform the RO, TO and TR. no loss of linear time. It is therefore recommended that the following activities be organized:
EO, - 1 - in interlinear time (during a sediment of the rolling stock);
TO-2 - in the first shift or with a minimum target day space of cars;
D-1 and D-2 - in the first or first and second shifts;
TP - the maximum number of requests (elimination of minor malfunctions) between the return and departure of cars on the line with the organization for this purpose of an additional (second and third) change of production after the end of the cars. Sections of electrical, fuel equipment and others performing works directly on the car must work in all organized shifts of current repair;
Work on the restoration of the revolving fund of units, devices and parts - in the first shift of production. To reduce the required number of jobs, a second shift can be organized;
Self-service work - in all production shifts.
The justification of the forms of organization of production is the defining point for the subsequent stages of technological calculation and overall design, such as:
- calculation of the number of workers;
- calculation of zones and branches;
- area calculation;
- development of planning solutions;
- selection of production technology and management structures.
The organization forms are based on the following tasks:
- selection of production method on production lines or universal posts (specializing in performing a certain type of technical impact - RO, TO1, TO-2);
- selection of combined or separate production of maintenance and diagnostics.
We make the selection in accordance with the available recommendations, but taking into account the real conditions of the particular enterprise. The main criterion is daily programs for a technologically compatible group of rolling stock.
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