Calculation and modernization of dough kneading machine - DBE, Drawings
- Added: 09.07.2014
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One of the most important directions in the bakery industry is to increase the capacity of enterprises by reconstructing old plants and equipping them with new modern equipment. Currently, there were many problems in the industry, of which efficiency was central.
To increase efficiency and, above all, increase labor productivity, it is important to reduce technological losses of raw materials and rationalize electricity consumption, since intensive management methods are inextricably connected with the effective use of production resources, the introduction of resource-saving technologies.
One effective way to improve the quality of bakery products is to manage biochemical, microbiological, colloidal and other processes in their production.
The bakery industry is one of the most material-intensive industries. Thus, the share of raw materials in the structure of the cost of goods is about 85%. Reduction of material consumption of products is affected by reduction of raw material losses. Therefore, great attention should be paid to the improvement of the technological process, the creation and implementation of progressive technological schemes based on the wide use of enhancers, concentrators, etc.
The amount of electric consumption is affected by a number of opposite factual rays. On the one hand, as a result of improving technological processes and equipment, reducing losses, the use of secondary energy resources and other measures, electricity consumption rates should steadily decrease. On the other hand, the increase in the electric armament of labor, the mechanization and automation of production, the crowding out of manual labor and the improvement of its conditions inevitably lead to an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the rational use of energy resources is not necessarily reflected in a decrease in energy consumption, although it is still possible to maintain a downward trend in industry as a whole. It is important that the actual items of energy expenditure are truly justified. In other words, electricity consumption rates should be scientifically and technically sound. [ 1 ]
Another important problem of the bakery industry is the improvement of the quality of bakery products. The quality of bakery products is directly related to the quality of agricultural products - grain. In recent years, the quality of the grain, its taste characteristics, and nutritional value have tirelessly deteriorated. This is primarily due to a decrease in the level of crop cultivation of land, which is due to lack of equipment, fertilizers, good specialists and much more. In this situation, the engineering and technical personnel of specific food enterprises have to look for optimal options for processing raw materials of various quality. This is primarily due to the reconstruction and modernization of existing equipment.
In the current economic situation in the country, for the sake of survival, the bakery, among other things, needs to look for new markets for its products and respond sensitively to constantly changing consumer demand.
This diploma project attempts to solve some of the problems covered in this section.
1. Analysis of modern objects of similar purpose
1.1 General characteristics of bakery industry enterprises
The improvement of dough preparation equipment is crucial for improving production efficiency and above all for increasing labor productivity in the bakery industry, intensifying technological processes, reducing the length of production cycles and reducing technological losses of raw materials.
Baking equipment is very diverse. It differs from each other in performance, principle of action, design [2, 19, 20].
The capacity of the entire line is determined by the capacity of the furnace. The line for the production of hearth bread is in-line and, the work of all equipment corresponds to the capacity of the oven. Therefore, during modernization, such a selection of equipment or its components is necessary, in which the selected mode of operation is not violated.
1.2 Features of production and consumption of finished products
Currently, two types of flow lines are used in bakery production, which differ in the degree of mechanization. The production of bakery products in the assortment is carried out on mechanized lines, which allow switching from the production of one type of product to the production of another within the assortment groups. The main processes of bakery production are kneading and fermentation of formula mixture-dough. When kneading, the components are mixed, the mixture is machined and saturated with air bubbles, moisture hydrolytically affects the dry components of the mixture, and a spongy dough frame is formed. Fermentation of the dough is caused by the vital activity of yeast, lactic acid and other bacteria. During fermentation, the test undergoes microbiological and enzymatic processes that change its physical properties. A capillary-porous structure is formed, held by an elastic-plastic skeleton, the pores of which are filled with gas consisting of carbon dioxide, water vapors, alcohol and other fermentation products. There is an accumulation of aromatic and taste substances that determine the consumer properties of bread.
Bakery products are produced in finished commercial and consumer form. The shelf life of bread without special packaging does not exceed 1... 2 days, so its production is organized in places of direct consumption. For transportation, hearth bread is laid on wooden trays, the latter are placed on racks or trolleys and transported by specialized cars.
1.5 Patent study of the project
Description of the invention to the copyright certificate SU 1253560 A1
A kneading machine comprising a flour dispenser, a trough-like container and a central shaft with blades arranged in it along an axis, characterized in that in order to intensify dough kneading and increase productivity, in the trough-like container parallel to the central shaft and at equal distances from its axis, additional three shafts are arranged with the possibility of planetary movement around the latter, on which the blades are also installed.
invention relates to bakery industry, in particular, to dough kneading machines of continuous action.
The purpose of the invention is to intensify dough kneading and increase productivity.
The working element in the form of shafts with blades installed with the possibility of planetary movement will allow intensifying the processes of mixing components, swelling of gluten and clotting due to creation of turbulent flows in the mass.
Intensification of kneading leads to a reduction in its duration, that is, an increase in productivity.
2 Description of the developed object
Dough kneading machine consists of flour dispenser, trough-like vessel, central shaft with blades, additional shafts with blades. Gears engaged with gear secured on central shaft are secured on additional shafts.
Dough kneading machine has loading funnel, outlet hole and drive. Between gears and trough-shaped vessel machine has round partition, which on one side is carrier rigidly fitted on central shaft and gasket for prevention of dough falling into drive mechanism. Blades on shafts are fixed along helical line.
The kneading machine operates as follows: the flour and liquid components are dosed continuously through a loading funnel into a trough-shaped container, in which the resulting test mass is continuously moved and mixed and moved along it with blades as the shafts rotate.
The drive transmits the movement from the motor to the central shaft, with the help of which the gears rotate. When the central shaft rotates, the additional shafts rotate both about the central shaft and about their own axis, that is, they make a planetary movement, which guarantees high-quality intensive dough kneading. Partition is rotated together with additional shafts.
After intensive kneading, the test mass exits the outlet, while creating sufficient pressure for the test mass to move through the pipeline for further processing.
Productivity gains are achieved by reducing the mixing process of components during the planned movement of working bodies
Information on installation, operation and repair of equipment
4.1 Procedure and timing of the equipment commissioning and commissioning
1. To maintain and restore the operability of the equipment, its preventive maintenance is carried out, consisting in systematic care, cleaning, lubrication, adjustment and repair with restoration and replacement of worn out parts.
2. The PPM system is carried out as planned through the installed periods.
3. The tasks of the PPM are as follows:
- ensuring the quality level of products;
- long-term maintenance of equipment in working condition;
- rational organization of repair with minimum simple equipment during repair;
- improvement of organization and methods of repair.
The equipment SPR system includes the following types of repairs:
Type I - Maintenance and Maintenance
II type - overhaul
III type - medium repair
Equipment maintenance and maintenance includes periodic inspection of equipment without disassembly; troubleshooting minor problems and defects; detection both during inspections and during operation of the machine, their cleaning and lubrication.
Ongoing repairs are carried out at the installation site of the equipment by the force of the repair personnel of the commissioning service.
The medium repair has the purpose of partially disassembling the main units before the next repair.
Overhaul shall be performed within the period stipulated by the schedule of repair at the workplace or RMZ.
In the production of meat products, important importance is attached to the processes of grinding and veneering meat, on which the quality of the finished product directly depends.
In the course of the course project, on the basis of a literary review, trends in the development of modern meat grinding technology were determined.
In order to intensify the grinding process and reduce its duration, the wolf was modernized,
Calculations were carried out confirming the reliability and operability of the modernized machine.
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