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Production operation of the machine-tractor fleet

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Course work on the topic: production operation of the machine and tractor fleet. 2 drawings: 1) Direct Harvesting Process Plan, MTP composition: KZR-10; 2) Schedule of load costs of tractors and s/c machines. Also attached is the entire calculation and text part.

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Additional information



Section Number

Section Contents
























Analysis of progressive technological schemes of oat cultivation

Justification of agrotechnical, technological complexes

chemical and organizational measures for intensive technology of oat cultivation


Yield forecasting

Development of a technological map for the cultivation of agricultural crops using intensive technology

Construction of schedules of equipment loading and operating costs during crop cultivation


Source Data

Agrotechnical requirements

Preparation of the unit

Unit speed mode

Field Preparation

Arrangement of unit operation in the field

Quality Control


Occupational safety during the agricultural operation

General Occupational Safety Requirements

Occupational Safety Requirements Before Commencement

Occupational Safety Requirements for Performance of Work

Occupational Safety Requirements at Work Completion

Safety requirements in emergency situations


Ways to save energy resources during MTA operation


Calculation of operating costs during MTA operation




The development of the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Belarus in the coming years will be carried out in accordance with the State program for the revival and development of the village for 20112015.

Technology is the pattern of performing operations, processes and works. Agricultural production distinguishes between agricultural production technology and agricultural work.

It is envisaged to carry out organizational, economic and technical measures aimed at deepening the specialization of production, concentration of funds in priority areas of economy, intensification of agricultural production, reduction of its cost and competitiveness.

Oats is the most important grain crop, in terms of the total sown area, it ranks fifth in the world after wheat, rice, corn and barley. Oats are cultivated mainly in the temperate climate zones of Europe, North America and Australia. In Belarus in the late 1950s, after the oats reached 600 thousand hectares, then gradually decreased. In 20032006 oats were sown on an area of ​ ​ 200250 thousand hectares, the yield was 25,428,8 c/ha, gross fees - 550700 thousand tons (about 10% of the annual grain production in the republic).

Oat grain is a concentrated feed, an integral part of all types of feed. The grain of sown oats, depending on the variety, contains: protein - 1118%, fat - 58%, starch - 3555%. The fat content of oats exceeds all grain crops, with the exception of corn. Oats protein is significantly superior in biological value to other grain crops. The use of oats in the food industry (oat cereal, flakes, flour, fat, etc.) is associated with good digestibility of nutrients and vitamins, which makes it especially valuable for baby food. In terms of protein, fat, phosphorus and iron, oatmeal is much richer than manny, millet and buckwheat, and in terms of caloric content it occupies the first place.

Oats are widely used for green food, hay and silage, especially in admixture with annual legumes - spring vica, pelushka, peas. The green mass is willingly eaten by animals and is well silted. Mixed oat crops with annual legume crops are among the best vaporizing crops.

Integrated mechanization provides for the replacement of manual labor with machine labor, the transformation of industrial labor into a kind of industrial labor, the use of a machine system that will ensure the mechanization of all production processes. Technical re-equipment of industrial production will increase labor productivity by 1.5 times, reduce the specific consumption of material and energy resources by 2025%, receive products by 2025% more annually with the same fuel consumption

The goal of the program is to ensure the sustainability of the social and economic development of the village and improve its demographic situation on the basis of increasing the economic efficiency of the agro-industrial complex, developing entrepreneurial initiative, ensuring the balance of the domestic food market, increasing export potential, increasing incomes of the rural population, the level of social and

domestic  and engineering arrangement of rural settlements, preservation and improvement of ecology in them, attraction and rational use of investments.

This program includes 19 target programs which are directed to realization of concrete actions in various industries of agrarian and industrial complex (land reclamation, technical support, the dairy industry, poultry farming, pig-breeding, potato growing, vegetable growing and fruit growing, production and processing of a flax, breeding business, selection and seed farming and others).

 In accordance with the program , in 2011-2015 it is planned to increase production in farms of all categories of 139-145%, the profitability of sales in 2015 in agriculture is expected to be 10-11  %, and the growth rate of labor productivity will be 167%.

In  2015, it is planned to produce grain in the amount of 12 million tons, sugar beet - 5.5 million, flax fiber - 60 thousand, rapeseed oil - 1.06 million, potatoes - 7.75 million and other vegetables - 2.16 million, milk - 10.7 million, livestock and poultry meat (live weight)  - 2 million tons.

In addition, 15.3 trillion rubles of budget funds will be additionally allocated for the implementation of targeted programs, including the development of the agro-industrial complex - 12.4 trillion., Social and engineering transport infrastructure   - 2.9 trillion rubles,  as well as 67.8 trillion rubles of credit funds. 6.2   trillion rubles are provided for the construction of housing in the village.

More than 47.3 thousand tractors are employed in the production of agricultural products of the republic, including more than 16 thousand traction class 2 and above, about 11.4 thousand combine harvesters. 2.6 thousand fodder harvesters, about 800 beet harvesters and tens of thousands of other agricultural equipment, machinery and equipment.

Specialists with secondary technical education head various production areas in the village. From their knowledge, practical skills and

organizational abilities largely depend on solving problems that

posed to agriculture. Deep knowledge of the basics of intensive technologies used in agricultural production, an important condition for the effective use of modern technology and the production of high yields of agricultural crops.

The tasks of course design are to teach future specialists:

- calculate the requirements for tractors and agricultural machines for the units of the economy;

- to plan mechanized works for a given period of agricultural work;

- determine and analyze the utilization indicators of the machine-tractor fleet;

determine the need for fuel and lubricants for the operation of the machine and tractor fleet of the units of the economy;

- Develop a progressive agricultural operating technology;

- determine and analyze technical and economic indicators of machine-tractor units operation;

- to apply knowledge on this subject in practice.

Work on the project is an important stage in the training of agricultural specialists.

The purpose of the course project is to consolidate the knowledge gained in theoretical classes in practical application.

Analytical part

Analysis of progressive technological schemes of oat cultivation

Intensive technology is aimed at obtaining high yields of good quality.

The essence of intensive technology of cultivation consists in placement of oat crops according to the best precursors, in mandatory timely and qualitative execution of all technological techniques with wide use of fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides, retordants, etc.

Oats are cultivated on sod loamy and sandy soils, sod loamy and loamy soils are permissible.

Optimal agrochemical indicators of soils: pH - 5.6 humus content - at least 1.6%, mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium - at least 150 mg/kg of soil.

The best precursors for cultivating oats are steep and legume crops. It is permissible to cultivate after grain spikes, buckwheat, cereal grasses.

Nitrogen fertilizers at a dose of 6090 kg/ha are introduced under pre-breeding cultivation. Phosphorus fertilisers at a dose of 5060 kg/ha are introduced under the main treatment and additionally 1015 kg/ha in rows in case of sowing. If phosphorus content is 150250 mg/kg of soil, phosphorus fertilizers are added only at sowing in rows - 15-20 kg/ha more than 250 mg/kg of soil - they are not added. Potash fertilizers at a dose of 80120 kg/ha are introduced under the main treatment. Before sowing or in advance, the seeds are etched.

For sowing, conditioned seeds of zoned varieties are used: captive: Bug, Asilak, Polonaise, Stralets, Bagach, Jubilar, Erbgraf, Ducat, Alf; holozerny: Belarusian holozerny, Vandroushk. Mass of 1000 grains - not less than 33 g for film, 25 g for holozer varieties.

When pests and diseases appear on oat crops, treatment with insecticides and fungicides is carried out.

Oats are removed by direct harvesting in the phase of complete ripeness at grain moisture of not more than 20%, seed areas - not more than 15%.

A feature of harvesting holozer varieties of oats is the careful adjustment of the threshing machine of the combine to prevent injury to seeds.

Modern technology for oat cultivation, as well as other crops, is based on a combination of the latest achievements in science and technology, techniques and means that allow you to obtain a high harvest at minimum production costs.

Its mandatory elements in the conditions of Belarus are: highly productive varieties, effective herbicides for weed control, a means of protecting the crop from diseases and pests, scientifically processed norms of mineral and organic fertilizers, comprehensive mechanization of all cultivation of this crop using highly productive equipment that allows you to conduct all technological operations qualitatively in the optimal time.

An important element of oat cultivation technology is the observance of crop rotation.

1.2. Substantiation of complexes of agrotechnical, technological and organizational measures for intensive technology of winter wheat cultivation

The productivity of crops depends on many factors. Some of them (temperature regime, solar energy) are not regulated by humans, but are taken into account in practice by choosing the timing of sowing, the density of plants, the direction of rows, etc.

Other factors are provided by the productive activities of people. These include: the presence of moisture in the soil; providing plants with elements of mineral nutrition; introduction of new zoned varieties; seed quality; protection of crops from weeds, pests, diseases; regulation of plant growth; best practices in harvesting; clear organization of works on execution of the most important technological operations in the optimal time frame.

The highest productivity is achieved with a combination of optimal conditions for plant growth and development.

Intensive growing technology offers optimization and balance of productivity elements at a high level. Its goal is to realize the genetic capabilities of highly productive varieties and achieve the maximum possible yields.

The essence of intensive technologies is as follows:

- placement of crops according to the best predecessors in the crop rotation system;

- cultivation of high-yielding varieties of intensive type with good grain quality;

- Providing plants with nutritional elements through the mobilization of soil resources and a rational fertilization system;

Introduction of a system of measures to protect plants from weeds, pests and diseases;

- timely and qualitative implementation of all technological methods of soil cultivation aimed at accumulation of moisture, creation of favorable physical conditions for growth and development of cultivated plants, preservation of soil fertility and protection against erosion.

With intensive technology, it is necessary to repeatedly move sowing units in order to carry out feeding and measures to protect plants from pests, weeds, diseases, as well as plant growth control measures. The quality of works is achieved by:

- the introduction of a permanent process track for the passage of wheeled tractors with appropriate trailer equipment;

- application of new high-performance machines, their modernization and careful adjustment of their working bodies;

- control over technological discipline, execution of all operations in a short and optimal time, which is better solved with the link organization of labor using the method of contract self-calculation.

The feasibility of cultivating oats using intensive technology is determined by the possibility of producing a crop of at least 3040 kg of grain per hectare.

Process Part

3.1 Initial data

Structure of the KZR10 unit;

Rated engine power Nen - 173 kW;

Weight of combine Gt - 140.4 kN;

The specific resistance of the combine is 3 kN/m;

Rolling resistance coefficient of combine ft - 0.08;

Kinematic length of the combine lt - 2.8 m;

Unit grip width b - 6.0 m;

Terrain slope i - 2%;

The length of the race is 800 m;

Nominal hourly fuel consumption Gt - 39.9 kg/h;

Maximum hourly fuel consumption at engine idle stroke Gtx - 9.8 kg/h;

Volume of hopper Vb - 6.0 m3;

Power spent on the drive of the VOM mechanism - Nvom = 104.0 kW.

3.2 Agrotechnical requirements

When harvesting directly, the bakery is mowed, thawed, the grain is cleaned of various impurities and loaded into the vehicle. The vehicle carries the grain to the current where it is dried and sorted. Direct harvesting is used when the entire spike ripens simultaneously. In this case, both the lower and upper parts of the spike are well thawed. Cut height: at bread height up to 75 cm - cut height 10 cm, At bread height up to 90 cm - cut height 18 cm. Grain losses behind the thresher are not more than - 1.5%. Grain purity in the hopper is not less than - 96%. Seed grain crushing is not more than - 1%. Food grain crushing is not more than - 2%. Fodder grain crushing is not more than - 2%.

3.3 Preparation of the unit

Check completeness and serviceability of the combine.

Seal the combine, that is, compress the places of possible grain leaks.

Adjust tension of belts and chains. Pulleys and sprockets in gears must be in the same plane.

The safety clutches are adjusted to transmit the torque necessary for normal operation of the corresponding working member. Example configuration scheme for couplings: tighten adjustment screws until springs are fully compressed and unscrew by 2.5 turns.

Deflect the inclination of rake when harvesting hollow breads by 15 ° or 30 ° back, when harvesting high breads 15 ° forward, at normal bakery - the bars are vertical.

Planks on grablins: at low, lower the bakery planks, at low - remove, at very low - build up with rubberized tape.

The remaining adjustments of the motor (rotation speed, height of the motor) are made during operation, based on specific conditions.

Adjust the clearance between the bottom of the reaper and the screw and the departure of the fingers, finger apparatus, screw.

The degree of floating of the floating conveyor of the inclined chamber is by springs on both sides of the lower shaft of the floating conveyor (inside the chamber). Springs are compressed with adjusting screws, providing lifting of conveyor up to 50 mm.

The tension of the floating conveyor is controlled by springs on both sides of the inclined chamber (outside). Tension is adjusted by compressing springs, distance between turns is not less than 15 mm. The deflection of the lower branch of the conveyor is about 10 mm.

Balancing of the housing of the reaper with springs of the balancing mechanism, if the springs are tightened, the pressure of the shoes on the soil will decrease and vice versa. Adjustment is checked by lifting the housing of the reaper behind the field divider. It should rise with an effort of 30 kg. That is, the harvester must lift the harvester body with one hand.

The speed of the drum is controlled by the variator - the higher the speed, the better the threshing, but more crushing of the grain. Pre-set the speed to 950 rpm.

Clearance between drum and deck is adjusted by lever from cockpit. We pre-install, with the deck fully raised, at the inlet of 18 mm, at the outlet of 2 mm.

Set the gaps in the blinds: the upper screen is about 2/3 of the maximum, the lower screen is about 1/3 of the maximum.

Install fan RPM using fan variator.

Perform test start of the engine and check operation of all harvester elements at idle.

Finalize the combine in the field.

Ways to save energy resources

5.1. Ways to save energy resources during MTA operation

Large reserves of fuel and energy resources are available in the field of operation of the machine-tractor fleet and the introduction of energy-saving technologies, because when using agricultural equipment, twice as much energy is spent on its production.

Due to the low productivity of the units, the farm is not able to carry out soil treatment in the optimal time. In order to reduce the negative results of late treatment and at great cost, unconventional methods of basic tillage using high-performance machines and tools should be used.

In order to reduce fuel and energy costs in the agro-industrial complex, it is necessary to apply energy-saving technologies and measures that reduce the energy intensity of the process:

improve organizational, operational, structural and technological measures aimed at fuel efficiency;

increase the energy and conditional efficiency of the unit (tractor) due to better use of shift time, engine power and other measures that increase the productivity and economy of the MTA;

adjust fuel equipment in a timely manner and maintain it in a technically serviceable state, at which the hour and specific fuel consumption are optimal;

correctly compose units, maneuver with high-speed mode of engine and tractor operation depending on operating conditions;

eliminate unjustified fuel losses during its transportation, storage and refuelling.

The composition of the unit is selected from the most productive machines for this operation, taking into account the group work of the units, the flow of work, the presence of machines in the farm and specific conditions (field sizes, amount of work, relief, etc.). When selecting machines, two important requirements should be taken into account: the entire volume of mechanized work must be carried out within the prescribed time frame by the smallest fleet of machines in terms of grade and quantity, and the entire range of agricultural measures should be provided with minimum labor, fuel and operating costs.

An important reserve for fuel economy is the maintenance of agricultural machines in a technically serviceable condition, timely and high-quality maintenance.

The use of modern combined and complex aggregates allows:

Reduce the time gap between process operations, which reduces the duration of field work and reduces moisture loss (for example, on pre-harvesting and sowing);

More fully use the power of the tractor in the unit (especially in machines with active drive of working elements) and reduce the specific fuel consumption per unit area;

Reduce the number of tractor passes through the field and therefore reduce soil compaction, spraying and erosion;

In comparison with the use of single-operation units, reduce the number of tractors, machine operators, the cost of their implementation;

Increase labor productivity and reduce the cost of agricultural products.

According to the technical implementation, parallel driving systems are divided into three groups:

manual - only show deviation from the calculated ideal gauge, which is a reference for the tractor driver;

partial automation - can automatically hold the unit on the track if the driver, after turning, directed the tractor to the correct track;

automatic parallel driving - they can direct the unit after turning to the correct track, as well as return the unit to the correct track (after bypassing the obstacle) and hold it.

The main ways to reduce fuel consumption during mechanized operations are correct adjustments of fuel equipment and maintenance of machine-tractor units in technically serviceable condition, rational picking of units and maintenance of optimal speed and loading modes of their operation, reduction of idle moves of units, selection of rational methods of movement and types of turns, reduction of downtime with operating engine.

The economy of cars with diesel engines is 3035% higher than carburetor cars, so k.p.d. diesel is 3538% (in operation by car about 22%), and k.p.d. carburetor engine 2628% (in operation on a car about 15%). A turbocharging unit driven by exhaust gas energy increases the efficiency of the diesel engine by 510%, and additional cooling of air supplied by the turbocharger to the diesel cylinders by another 4-8%.

Use of aerodynamic fairing on truck trains.

Fuel consumption is an important indicator of vehicle efficiency, but not the only one.


In the course project on the topic: "Technical support for oat cultivation with the development of operational technology for the direct harvesting process," I presented an intensive technology for oat cultivation. He developed a technological map for cultivating oats. He developed the technological map with the aim of rational organization of production: he calculated the ICC, compiled a schedule of work, determined the economic indicators of crop cultivation. According to the technological map, he built a linear schedule for loading tractors and agricultural machines. The schedule indicates the production operations, the composition of the unit, the number of units, the period and duration of work. The graph also shows the labor costs of machine operators, fuel consumption, and conditional reference hectares.

In my economy, the following types of tractors, machines and electric motors are needed:

MTZ-80 - 4 units;

MTZ-1522 - 4 units;

KZR-10 - 3 units;

E/d - 190.2 kW;

GAZSAZ3507 - 1 unit.

The field area in my farm is 510 hectares. The unit with which oat retraction -KZR10 was performed. In the Course Project, I calculated the necessary speed of the unit, which is

. The obtained speed lies within the limits of agrotechnically permissible speeds 0.83... 2.22 m/s. Based on this speed range, received the working transmission of the combine - 2 transmission, at which Vk = 1.41 .

I chose the right way to move the units - shuttle.

I presented all operations such as: agricultural requirements, preparation of the unit, speed mode of the unit, field preparation, operation of the unit in the field and quality control of the work done.

An occupational safety instruction was also proposed.

To reduce costs and increase productivity, ways to save energy were presented.

During the course, I consolidated the knowledge gained in theoretical classes, learned to rationally use the technique for its intended purpose, and also got acquainted with the design and calculation of the composition of the machine and tractor fleet and its operation.


The state program for the revival and development of the village for 20112015 - Mn., 2011.

Budko Yu. V., Dobysh G.F., Tymoshenko V. Ya., Neporko T. A., Busheiko V. S. "Operation of agricultural machinery," training for SSUZov. Mn.: Belarus, 2006.

Budko Yu. V., Dobysh G.F. "Operation of the machine and tractor fleet." Mn.: Urajai, 1998.

Zangiev A. A. "Production operation of the machine and tractor fleet." M.: Kolos, 1996.

Zangiev A. A. "Operation of the machine and tractor fleet." M.: Kolos, 2005

Kozhenkova K. I. "Technology of mechanized agricultural work," textbooks. Mn.: Urajai, 1988.

Labodaev V. D., Udovenko V. M. "Automobile transportation of agricultural goods." Mn.: Urajai, 1987.

Pranovich I. M. "Production operation of the machine and tractor fleet. Course design. " Mn.: Belarus, 2005.

Fortune V.I., Mironosyuk S.K. "Technology of mechanized agricultural work." M.: Agropromizdat, 1986.

Agricultural machinery manufactured in the Republic of Belarus: - Minsk UP "SKTB BelNIIMSH," 2002. – 88 pages.

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icon zzz График 1.cdw

zzz График 1.cdw

icon Операционно- технологическая карта прямого комбайнирования _ КП.15.2-74 06 01.413.11.02.ТК.cdw

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