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Prime grade wheat flour bar line

  • Added: 03.07.2014
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Coursework. Explanatory note, train drawing

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icon Схема технологическая.dwg
icon Технология производства батона из пшеничной муки высшего сорта.docx

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1The current level of production in question (literature review)

1.1Production flow charts

1.1The modern range and ways of its expansion

1.2Use of additives and enhancers

1.4Interpretations and Suggestions

2Selection and justification of production flow chart

3 Scientific basis of technological processes

4Computed part: calculation of reserves of raw materials and areas for its storage


List of sources used


Batons are products made of simple or improved dough of elongated shape with blunt, rounded or sharp ends. There are incisions on the surface of the article. They occupy a large share in trade and a main place in the nutrition of the population.

A significant place in meeting a person's need for nutrients and the energy necessary for him is occupied by bakery products with a wide range, having a wonderful taste, high nutritional and energy value.

Due to their consumption, a person almost half satisfies his need for carbohydrates, a third in proteins, more than half in B vitamins, phosphorus and iron salts.

The purpose of this course work is to study the technology of production of high-grade wheat flour bar, get acquainted with the modern assortment and ways of its expansion, investigate the use of additives and enhancers, as well as develop measures to improve the range.

1 Current level of production under consideration

1.1 Production Flow Charts

Acceptance, storage and preparation of raw materials for production

The following raw materials are required to produce the planned product range:

- prime grade bakery wheat flour;

- pressed bakery yeast;

- culinary food salt;

- table margarine with fat content of at least 82%;

Prime grade wheat flour (GOST R 521892003) is supplied to the bakery by a special car flour truck. Storage of flour is made in A2X2E160A silos. At the bakery there is a supply of flour for seven days. Flour is pumped to production from silos through A2HPSH rotary feeder, also under air pressure from compressors through the muco-pipe to the Burat 1.5 screen, where flour is cleaned from foreign and metal-magnetic impurities. For control of the flour which is released on production portion automatic scales 6.041AB50HK are established, then flour comes to the suspended bunker and further on a mukoprovoda goes to tanks for flour which are supplied with the stirring-up M102 filters. Filters are installed on upper cover of hopper. From these containers, flour is supplied through the Sh2XDA doser for dough kneading.

Pressed bakery yeast (GOST 17181) is delivered to the bakery in cardboard boxes. Yeast is stored in a refrigerating chamber at a temperature of 2-4 degrees. Before starting production yeast is released from packing and diluted with water in mixer X14 in ratio 1:3. Then, the yeast suspension is pumped by the pump to an intermediate tank and to production to a consumable tank located above the doser of liquid components of Sh2XDB.

Culinary food salt (GOST R 515742000) is brought in car dump trucks. Its storage is made in solution by concentration of 26% in T1HSB10 installation. The salt is discharged from the dump trucks to the receiving funnel and through the grid through an inclined plane enters the container for storage and dissolution. Water enters the tank and by air bubbling the salt dissolves to a solution density of 1.2 t/m, after which the operator opens the valve and the salt solution is sent for filtration and then transported by monjus with compressed air to an intermediate tank, from which it is pumped by a pump for production to a consumable tank.

Sand sugar (GOST 2194) is delivered in bags of 50 kg. Sugar is stored in a warehouse at room temperature and relative humidity of not more than 75%. Bags are placed on wooden racks, shelves or grids, their height from the floor should be at least 20 cm. Sifted sugar is dissolved by water in the SGR sugar solvent. The resulting sugar solution is pumped by the pump to an intermediate container, and then to a consumable container located above the liquid component dispenser. Sugar solution concentration - 50%.

Table margarine (GOST R 5217803) is delivered to the bakery in corrugated cardboard boxes. It is stored in a refrigerating chamber at a temperature of 2... 4⁰, before starting production, margarine is melted in a SBS sugar solvent, and then pumped by pump to an intermediate container and then to production.

Kneading dough

The dough is prepared in a non-hazardous manner in the Sh2KHTD dough preparation unit. The batch of the test is made by the dough mixing car of periodic action Sh2HP2A. The dough is kneaded from flour, yeast suspension, salt solution, sugar solution, margarine and water. Flour is dosed by the Sh2HDA batcher from capacity. Flour is supplied to the metering unit using Sh33SCR feed screw. A portion of yeast suspension, salt solution, sugar solution, margarine and water is measured by a CH2CDB doser. Liquid components come from consumable tanks. Duration of dough kneading 6... 9 minutes .

Dough fermentation

After kneading, the dough is unloaded into a 210 liter deja mounted on a fermentation conveyor, and fermentation of the dough is carried out on duty. With alcohol fermentation, flavors and aromatics accumulate in the dough, the acidity rises to 3... 3,5⁰. The duration of fermentation of the dough is 120... 150 minutes.

Dividing the dough into pieces

Upon termination of fermentation of the test of a dezh there passes the overturning device of the fermentative conveyor and bends therefore dough comes to a funnel of the testodelitelny A2XTH car. The tester divides the dough into pieces of the required mass .

Rounding Test Workpieces

These pieces get to the testookruglitelny T1XTH car where they are given spherical shape, then board preparations roll down an inclined trench on the giving conveyor of the testozakatochny car for formation of T1HT2Z long loafs.

Final shaping

The testing machine rolls the test piece into a "pancake," and then folds it into a "sleeve," as a result of which it is given an elongated shape. Molded test blanks are delivered to the rotary stacker, where they are placed in cradles of the final RSHV3 proofing cabinet for 6 pieces per cradle.

Final proofing

Final proofing is performed at air temperature 35... 40⁰ and relative humidity 85%. When proofing, the dough blank due to alcohol fermentation increases in volume by about 3 times, a porous structure of the flesh is formed in it, as well as the taste and aroma of the future finished product. The duration of the final proofing for the batter is 50... 60 minutes.

Baking Finished Goods

After its completion, test blanks pass under a mechanical incisor, where they are cut, and then transplanted to G4PHS16 furnaces. The finished products are baked at a temperature of 190... 200⁰ for 21... 23 minutes. In the first zone of the baking chamber, dough blanks are moistened with steam.


Finished products leaving the furnace fall on a transverse conveyor, and from it on a conveyor for supplying finished products for laying. With this conveyor, batons are delivered to the circulation conveyor, from which they are stacked in the trays of the XCL18 container, while non-standard products are rejected .


After filling all trays, the container is rolled back to the cooling room, another container with empty trays is installed in its place.

The finished products are cooled for 2... 2.5 hours, and then packaged.

1.2 Modern assortment and ways of its expansion

Rifled bars have elongated shape with rounded ends and 4-5 oblique shallow incisions. The formula includes sugar (35%) and margarine (3.5%). Sliced bars differ from simple brighter colors of the crust, rounded in cross-section shape, pleasant, slightly sweet taste of the flesh.

"City" batons have a mass of 400 g, an elongated shape, sharp ends and raised scallops; "Minsk" weighing 200 or 400 g - narrow, long with high scallops and blunt ends. The improved ones include chopped bars (6% sugar and 3% margarine), Stolichny (0.2 and 0.4 kg) with the addition of sugar (1%), Moscow Region (0.4 kg) with the addition of sugar (6%), margarine (3%) and two longitudinal incisions.

1.3 Use of additives and enhancers

The quality of bakery products depends on the quality of the raw materials, primarily on the bakery properties of the flour, on the methods and modes of carrying out individual stages of the technological process for the preparation of bakery products and on the use of small amounts of special additives - substances or products that improve the quality of bread products.

In recent years, food additives and bakery enhancers of various principles of action have been widely used in the bakery industry, the need for the use of which is due to the variety of properties of the processed raw materials, the expansion of the assortment of products, including with a modified chemical composition, the need to extend the shelf life of the freshness of finished products and other factors.

The use of dietary supplements is permissible only if they, even in prolonged use, do not threaten human health.

In the baking industry in many countries, a number of special additives are used to improve the quality of products - increasing the volume, shape, structure and properties of the flesh, taste and aroma.

These additives, by the nature of their actions, can be divided with a known convention into:

oxidative enhancers;

- reductive action enhancers;

modified starches;

- enzyme preparations;

- surfactants;

- organic acids;

- mineral salts;

- substances that slow the deterioration of articles;

aromatic and flavouring additives;

- dry gluten and enhancers based on it;

- dyes;

- sweeteners.

Oxidative Enhancers

Effect of oxidizing processes on the properties of flour, dough and finished products

The oxidative effect is a factor that largely determines the state of the protein-protein complex of flour, influences both its protein substances (hardening and reduction of attack due to the formation of disulfide bridges by oxidation of adjacent sulfhydryl groups), proteolysis activators (inactivation by oxidation of sulfhydryl groups), and proteinase (conversion to inactive form by oxidation of the same sulfhydryl groups). As a result, the strength of the flour is increased, the rheological properties of the dough therefrom are improved, and the volume of bread is increased as a result of the improvement of the gas and the moulding capacity of the dough, and the volatility of the hearth products is reduced.

The effect of the oxidative effect on the "mucus" of flour is manifested (strengthening the structure of the viscous mass of swollen mucus in the liquid phase of the test), and on the activity of amylolytic enzymes, in particular α-amylase (oxidation of active sulfhydryl groups in the a-amylase molecule reduces its activity).

The role of the lipoxygenase enzyme is also significant. protein-proteinase complex components and flour pigments involved in oxidative action.

The oxidative effect on the above components of flour during storage of flour after milling is the main reason for its "ripening" (for wheat flour - increasing its strength and lighting).

The role of oxidizing processes in the enhanced machining of the dough is particularly important when kneading and forming and directing the dough immediately or shortly after kneading.

All this shows a very significant effect of the oxidative effect on the properties of flour, dough and ultimately bread.

Types of oxidative enhancers and their use

Oxidative bread quality enhancers include: oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, potassium bromate, potassium iodate, ammonium persulfate; ascorbic acid (its dehydroform has oxidative effect), chlorine dioxide, acetone peroxide, azodicarbonamide, carbamide peroxide, calcium peroxide, etc.

Restorative Enhancers

In the preparation of bakery products from wheat grade flour with excessively strong, short-flowered gluten, reducing additives are also advisable. They will weaken excessively strong gluten, improve the structural and mechanical properties of dough, and in the end, the quality of bakery products.

Thus, proteolysis activators such as cysteine or glutathione in its reconstituted state may influence

The use of hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) - sodium thiosulfate is also envisaged for this purpose.

Suitable dosages of hyposulfite range from 0.001 to 0.002% by weight of flour.

Enzyme preparations

The purpose of the enzyme preparations used in baking, such as cereal malt and malt preparations, microbial enzyme preparations, is to force the biochemical processes catalyzed by the enzymes contained in the preparation. The ultimate goal of forcing these processes is to improve the quality of bread or accelerate the technological processes of its production, primarily at its longest stage - the preparation of dough.

From what is said, it is clear that enzymes play a very significant role in the technological process of bread production.

Of greatest importance are the amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes, which significantly determine the gasification during fermentation of dough and its gas and shape-retaining ability. Lipoxygenase is also important, which plays a significant role in the process of maturing wheat flour after milling, as well as in oxidative processes that affect the rheological properties of dough and the color of bread flesh. Therefore, it is quite justified for many years that the use of enzyme preparations as bread enhancers is also practiced.

Products and preparations with lipoxygenase activity and their use in baking

Role of lipoxygenase enzyme in oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in components of protein-proteinase complex of flour. However, lipoxygenase activity in wheat grains and wheat flour is relatively low. In this regard, in a number of countries, additives to dough of products or preparations having high lipoxygenase activity, such as soybean flour, cell juice of potatoes, are used to improve bread quality.


Surfactants (surfactants) are not only used as emulsifiers in the preparation of emulsions of fat in water.

In a number of countries, surfactants are a mandatory component of fat products produced for baking.

In our country, two such fat products were developed: fat with phosphatides for bakery products and liquid fat for the bakery industry. Technical documentation for these fat products provides for the presence of food phosphatide concentrate.

In the composition of liquid fat for the bakery industry, the presence of surfactants is also provided.

When preparing the dough, self-application of individual surfactants is also practiced as an additive that improves the properties of the dough, the quality of the bread and its ability to maintain freshness. Therefore, the corresponding surfactants can be considered as a special group of bakery enhancers.

Surfactants include substances having the ability to adsorb to the interface and reduce surface tension.

Surfactants used in baking

Only surfactants, which are immaculate in terms of their harmlessness as a component of the food product and have received official approval from the state health and hygiene authorities, can be used in baking.

In our country, the effectiveness of the use in baking of a number of surfactants: FC - phosphatide concentrates has been investigated; MG and DG - mono and diglycerides of fatty acids and their mixtures, including MGS (stearic acid monoglyceride), etc.; sucrose stearates; sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl lactic acid; MHSDV is a monoglyceride stearate ester with diacetyltartaric acid.

It is also used in baking a number of other surfactants (polyoxyethylene monostearates, sorbitol and permeated glycol esters with different fatty acids, etc.).

Influence of surfactant application on bread quality

The greatest effect improving the quality of bread is achieved if the fat provided for a given grade of bread or bakery products is added to the dough in the form of an emulsion in water using surfactant as an emulsifier. The surfactant additives provide a finer dispersion and stable emulsion.

The addition of fat and surfactant to the dough in the form of an emulsion in water contributes to a better distribution in the dough and therefore results in a greater improvement in bread quality than the addition of the same amounts of fat and surfactant to the dough in a non-emulsified state.

An even greater degree of improvement in bread quality is achieved when fat and surfactant are added to the dough as an emulsion with addition of an oxidative improver.

General Conclusion on Application of Surfactant as Bread Quality Enhancers

Summing up the stated versatile effect of the use of surfactant additives in the bread preparation process, the following can be noted:

1. The use of appropriate surfactants can significantly improve the quality of wheat flour bread products (the volume of products increases, the porosity structure of the flesh and its structural and mechanical properties are improved - it becomes softer and tender to the touch). A particularly significant improvement in bread quality is achieved when the surfactant is used as an emulsifier in an aqueous fat emulsion added to the dough while simultaneously adding an oxidative improver (e.g., potassium bromate).

2. The use of surfactant helps to maintain the freshness of bread products for a longer time (bread flesh slower loses softness, and crust retains fragility longer).

3. The additives of the corresponding surfactants affect the rheological properties of the dough, improving its gas-retaining capacity and the ability to be processed in the treatment stage.

The effect of individual surfactant groups on the rheological properties of dough and gluten is different. Anionic surfactants (calcium stearoyl 2lactate, sodium stearoyl fumarate, etc.) significantly strengthen gluten and dough, and amphoteric (FC, lecithin) and non-ionic (mono and diglycerides, fat sugar and many others) somewhat weaken them. Therefore, the use of amphoteric or non-ionic surfactants is advantageous when preparing dough from flour with short-blooded and even more crumbled gluten.

Modified starches as bread quality enhancers

To improve the quality of bread, our country produces starch, oxidized for baking. This modified starch (MDC) is obtained by oxidation of corn starch with various reagents - potassium bromate (MDC brand A), potassium permanganate (MDC brand B) or calcium hypochlorite (MDC brand B). It is advisable to use the MDK of these brands when producing bread, bakery and lamb products from wheat, primarily varietal, flour.

The use of MDC increases the hydrophilic properties of flour, improves the rheological properties of dough, increases the volume of bread and compressibility, improves the color of the flesh and prolongs the period of consumer freshness of bread.

When producing bread products from varietal wheat flour, the MDC dosage ranges from 0.3% (for grade A) to 0.5% (for grades B and B).

Other types of modified starch are produced.

Swellable starches obtained by moisture-thermal treatment or other methods are also found in a number of countries in the bakery industry. They are powdered, largely gelatinized starch. Adding them to the dough causes the same effect as brews from part of the flour, similarly affecting the properties of the dough and the processes that occur in it, as well as the quality of the bread and the extension of its freshness period.

Their use at the bakery is much easier and more convenient than cooking.

For baking technology, oxidized starches with a low oxidation state are of practical importance, which are used as a means of improving the quality of bread. Upon action of oxidizing agents on starch, hydrolytic cleavage of glucoside bonds occurs with the formation of carbonyl groups, oxidation of alcohol groups into carbonyl, and then carboxyl ones.

The use of modified starches improves the hydrophilic properties of the flour components, the structural and mechanical properties of gluten and dough, which leads to an increase in bread quality, as well as an increase in volume, an improvement in the porosity structure, the flesh becomes more elastic, it is observed some lightening.

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