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  • Added: 14.12.2016
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Description

The main part is the design of the electrical department, a special task is the diagnosis of the starter. Initial data: ETO compartment, Mitsubishi car brand, 135 pcs served, Technical condition of cars new 45 pcs overhauled 90 pcs, the average daily mileage of one car is 185 km, the average duration of one car on the line is 8 hours, category of operating conditions 1, Line operation mode, days per week 5 days, time of start and end of vehicle getting to work is 8-17 h, operation mode of the compartment, post 1 shift, start and end time of the compartment 8-17 h, time of start and end of operation of production and auxiliary departments 8-17 h, frequency of TO-1 4700 km TO-2 1580 km, equipment for compartment 20, Dimensions of compartment (post) width 8.8 length of 7.7 mV to this work is projected electrotechnical office, and as a special task starter 35.3708 the Graphic part is considered IT contains planning of office, the scheme of connection of the starter, the diagnostic card of malfunctions of the starter and the scheme of electronic device 2612.3747 for automatic shutdown and blocking of the SoderzhanieVvedenie1 starter the Main part. Design of electrical department 2 Special task. Diagnostics starterazaklyucheniyespisok the used literature

Project's Content

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icon ДИПЛОМ.docx
icon Диагностика неисправностей.cdw
icon Планировка.cdw
icon Схема подключения стартера.cdw
icon Чертеж.cdw

Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1 Main part. Electrical Department Design

1.1 Initial data

1.2 Correction of maintenance periodicity

1.2.1 Correction of maintenance periodicity -

1.2.2 Correction of maintenance periodicity -

1.3 Selection and calculation of inter-repair mileage standards

1.3.1 Calculation of correction factor of overhaul mileage standards

1.3.2 Cars that have not undergone major repairs

1.3.3 Cars overhauled

1.3.4 Calculation of average value of overhaul mileage

1.4 Selection and calculation of factors for correction of labour intensity standards

1.5 Calculation of labour intensity

1.5.1 Labor intensity for TO-

1.5.2 Calculation of labour intensity for TO-

1.5.3 Labor intensity of works for routine repair

1.6 Calculation of car downtime during both overhaul and overhaul

1.6.1 Calculation of car downtime during overhaul

1.6.2 Selection of car idle time during the current repair

1.6.3 Calculation of car downtime cycle

1.7 Calculation of relative operating factors of the post

1.7.1 Calculation of technical readiness factor of vehicles

1.7.2 Calculation of the utilization rate of serviced vehicles

1.8 Calculation of annual mileage and quantity of maintenance for the year

1.8.1 Calculation of annual mileage of all cars

1.8.2 Calculation of TO-1 quantity per car per year

1.8.3 Calculation of TO-2 quantity per car per year

1.8.4 Calculation of TO-1 quantity for all cars per year

1.8.5 Calculation of TO-2 quantity for all cars per year

1.9 Calculation of labour intensity

1.9.1 Calculation of annual labor intensity of works for TO-

1.9.2 Calculation of annual labor intensity for TO-

1.9.3 Calculation of annual labor consumption for the current repair

1.9.4 Determination of the share of labor intensity of the department, post

1.10 Determination of minimum number of working departments, posts

1.11 Calculation of the minimum production area of the compartment, post

1.12 Selection of equipment for the designed compartment, post

1.13 Description of equipment design and operation

1.13.1 Vat-501 Ignition System Tester

1.13.2 Iskra-A automobile stroboscope

1.13.3 High-voltage probe for individual coils

1.13.4 Diagnostic stand M-108 for Common Rail nozzles

1.13.5 Automobile diagnostic scanner-tester DST-

1.13.6 Cabinet Mf-

1.13.7 Test bench for E-250- generators and starters

1.13.8 Digital scopemeter oscilloscope (40mhz)

1.13.9 Switchgear MT -

1.13.10 Automatic station for filling car air conditioners

1.13.11 Steel quick-press clips

1.13.12 Kimo Kigaz Gas Analyzer

1.13.13 Lift - P 1018.

1.13.14 Device for inspection and cleaning of spark plugs SMC-

1.13.15 Cars multi-label scanner BARS 3 PROF

1.13.16 AM1-M automaster

1.13.17 Prorab-Striker launcher-charger

1.14 Calculation of technical and economic indicators

1.14.1 Calculation of the number of repair workers in the workshop

1.14.2 Calculation of the value of fixed assets

1.14.3 Payroll Fund Calculation

1.14.4 Shop expenses

1.14.5 Calculation of cost of repair works

1.15 Occupational Safety and Safety

1.15.1 Technological justification of electrical compartment location

1.15.2 Safety Instructions

1.15.3 Training of personnel in safe receptions and working methods

1.15.4 Compartment illumination

1.15.5 Compartment ventilation

2 Special task. Starter Diagnostics

2.1 Starter function and device

2.2 Main starter faults

2.3 Basic methods of monitoring and diagnostics, equipment and devices for their performance

2.4 Maintenance

2.5 Repair Operations

2.6 Starter test

Conclusion

List of sources used

Application

Appendix A. Statement of final qualification work

Introduction

In case of detection of malfunctions without disassembly of the car, they resort to its diagnostics. It is diagnosis that allows you to establish the causes of breakdowns and defects in the early stages, which allows you to extend the life of the entire car as a whole. A specialist in noise, vibration and other external features will determine not only the technical component, but also the operability of the machine, its individual mechanisms. To date, there are various types of diagnostics:

Diagnosis is used to monitor those mechanisms that are responsible for safe movement. Such a check should be carried out together with the inspection.

Diagnostics are used if it is necessary to identify implicit faults that are hidden. It is this in-depth diagnosis that will reveal not only the nature, but also the causes of the breakdown, the elimination of which may take all the professionalism and a fairly large amount of time.

The whole diagnostic process consists of several stages:

Find out the parameters by which to perform diagnostics

Compare the results of the diagnostics with the available generally accepted data

Prepare a report on the work done, without forgetting to formulate the main conclusions and results of the work done

Calculate the service life limit, that is, for how much time a particular mechanism will be able to operate without compromising the safety of passengers and the driver himself

Diagnosis is a peculiar way of controlling the general state of the car. It allows you to present a general picture of the state of the car from a technical point of view. Also, diagnostics have a predictive property, that is, with its help it is possible to understand what time a particular zone will function properly.

For diagnostics, various technical means are used, which are designed to measure the values ​ ​ of diagnostic parameters in quantitative terms. These can be devices that determine the test mode, various sensors, measuring devices, and so on. All the above funds can be divided into two groups:

external

built-in

The first group includes those components that are not originally built into the car itself, that is, directly into its design. They can be mobile or portable, as well as stationary, not subject to transportation. Moreover, both the first and the second can work together in the complex. Specialists include external means those sensors, measuring devices and other gadgets that are part of the design of the car. That is, it can be devices built into the panel that are directly in front of the driver, the nomenclature of which has been constantly expanding recently, allowing the driver to monitor the operation of rather complex mechanisms. This allows you to notice possible malfunctions at the earliest stages and immediately contact the service for troubleshooting. Today, so-called embedded tools are also widely known, helping to equip the car with all the necessary tracking sensors and dashboard, which only once again improves safety.

In general, diagnostics play one of the main roles in maintenance, since it allows you to not only assess the general state, but also the state of individual mechanisms and elements.

The purpose of my diploma project is to design the electrical department, it is advisable to select modern equipment, devices, stands to increase productivity and obtain economic effect.

Main starter faults

Determine the actuator serviceability by visual inspection after starter disassembly. Stator, rotor and traction relay are checked for short circuit and winding break. We replace the faulty element in the assembly. External inspection check the condition of the manifold and brushes - replace the worn brushes, the oiled manifold with whitespirite, solvent or gasoline

The main failures of the starter can be as follows. When the starter is switched on, the traction relay does not operate, the armature does not rotate. Reasons:

failure or complete discharge of the storage battery;

strong oxidation of the pole leads of the battery and wire tips;

weak tightening of tips;

disconnecting or breaking the traction relay wire from the side of the starter or ignition switch;

turn-to-turn closure in the winding of the traction relay of the starter, breaking or closing by "mass";

jamming of traction relay armature;

failure of switch contact part.

When the starter is switched on, the traction relay operates, but the armature does not operate or does not rotate intensively enough. The reasons may be:

discharging the storage battery;

oxidation of pole leads of the storage battery and tips of connecting wires;

loosening of attachment tightening on contact bolts of the starter traction relay;

burnup of the collector;

hanging of brushes or their large wear;

a break in the stator or armature winding;

closing of insulated brush holder of positive brush with "mass";

closing between the manifold plates;

turn-to-turn closure in armature or stator windings or their closure to "mass."

To check operability of the traction relay of the starter, a voltmeter or ammeter is introduced into the supply circuit of the traction relay winding, a gasket with a thickness of 12.8 to 15.0 mm is installed between the limiting ring and the drive gear. The thickness of the gasket depends on the type of starter. The relay is then switched on. The winding power current must not exceed 23 A, and the voltage must be 9 V. If these values are greater, then the relays or starter drive windings are faulty. If there are deviations of starter operating parameters from nominal parameters, the winding must be checked if there is no closure in it.

Check of starter windings for absence of "mass" fault is performed by means of control lamp or tester. To check, output of excitation winding is disconnected from traction relay, insulated brushes are lifted, wire of shunt coil is disconnected from uninsulated brush holder, brushes are removed from insulated brush holders, for which purpose screws for attachment of brush ropes are previously turned off. Voltage of 12 V is supplied through control lamp to output of excitation winding and starter housing. If the lamp lights up, then the excitation winding closes to "mass."

In the same way, it is checked whether there is no closure to the "mass" of the insulated brush holders. Voltage is supplied to insulated brush holder and starter housing. To ensure that there is no closure of the manifold or armature winding to the "mass," uninsulated and insulated brushes are lifted, voltage is supplied to the manifold plates and starter housing. Illumination of the bulb indicates closure of the armature winding to "mass." If malfunctions of parts that disturb the starter operability are detected, they are disassembled and repaired.

When the starter is switched on, the armature rotates, and the engine crankshaft does not scroll. The main reasons may be:

idle clutch slip;

breakage of the clutch release lever or its axis popping out;

breakage of the lead ring of the coupling or buffer spring;

jamming or tight movement of drive on screw thread of starter armature shaft.

Starter is not switched off after engine start. The main reasons may be:

jamming of drive lever;

jamming of the drive on the shaft of the starter armature or sticking of the contacts of the traction relay;

breakage of the return spring of the ignition switch;

loosening or breakage of return springs of the clutch or traction relay of the starter;

jamming of traction relay.

If the engine is operational and the starter is not switched off, it is necessary to immediately turn off the ignition, open the hood and disconnect the wire leading to the starter relay. A possible cause of the malfunction may be a skew of the starter. Then tighten the bolts of its housing attachment to the engine.

The main reasons for the increased noise of the starter during the rotation of the armature may be:

wear of bearings bushings or armature shaft necks;

loosening of starter attachment;

damage of gear teeth of drive or rim of engine flywheel;

breakage of the cover on the drive side;

loosening of the pole attachment in the starter housing - the armature hits the pole during rotation.

Before disassembly, the starter must be cleaned of dust and dirt with a hairbrush and dry rags. When disassembling, special removers, clutches, and presses are used. After disassembly, all units and parts are washed and dried. Metal parts are washed in bath with alkaline solution or kerosene. Parts with wires or winding are rubbed with a cloth wetted in gasoline and purged with compressed air. After blowing, they are dried in electric drying cabinets at a temperature of 95-100 ° C for an hour and a half. The felt and felt gaskets are washed in pure gasoline.

After cleaning and drying, starter units and parts are inspected, necessary measurements and electrical tests are carried out. Main defects of armature are destruction of insulation and breaks of winding turns, wear of collector plates, hairlines, grooves and shells on their surfaces, balls and scratches on armature iron, wear of necks and bending of shaft, wear of splines near armature shaft. To detect defects in the armature and stator windings, they use special devices on which breaks and closures are checked for "mass." Scratches, hairlines and balls on iron are eliminated by grinding with fine sandy skin or grinding. If the armature iron has decreased in diameter, then gaskets are installed under the pole tips. If the shaft journals for bearings are worn out, they are restored by quenching or chrome. Slight wear is restored by rolling followed by grinding to nominal size.

Worn working surfaces of collectors and contact rings are swept on machine and then ground with skin. The allowable reduction in the diameter of the manifolds shall not exceed the values specified in the specification. With smaller diameters, the collectors are replaced with new ones. If the winding has internal defects or destruction of insulation, then it is removed and a new winding is wound onto the armature: Without rewinding, the winding break or closure of sections at the soldering points to the collector plates is eliminated. Winding of starter armature is repaired in case of insulation failure. The damaged insulation is replaced. Collectors with closed or expanded plates are not repaired, they are replaced by new ones. Electrical or mechanical damages may have housings assembled. Such damage is detected by external inspection and electrical testing. The main defects are turn-to-turn closure of windings and closure for "mass," breaks in winding connections and breaks of output tips. Characteristic mechanical damages of the housings are thread tearing, nicks at the landing places of the covers, damage to the splines, burrs on the surface of the pole tips, damage to the splines of the screws for attaching the pole tips. Damaged thread is restored by cutting of thread of repair size or installation of additional part - screw with thread of nominal size. The nicks at the seats of the covers are eliminated with a file; pole pieces with balls and dents are replaced. Small cramps are eliminated by swelling. Here, it is important to provide the required radial clearance between the anchor and the pole pieces by placing transformer iron gaskets under the pole pieces.

To eliminate faults of excitation windings, the starter housing must be disassembled. For this purpose terminals are removed and screws for attachment of pole pieces are screwed before loosening them with screwdriver. Coils with dried and oiled insulation are dried in drying cabinet and then impregnated with insulating varnish. Damaged interturn and external insulation in windings of excitation coils of starters is replaced by a new one.

Damage to insulation and winding breaks, burning, oxidation and welding of contacts can be the causes of failures of the starter switch and relay. Insulation damage and winding breaks are installed by means of control lamp. On a special machine, the defective winding is rewound, and the state of the contacts is detected during external inspection. Burnt and oxidized contacts are cleaned with sandy fine-grained skin. Welded contacts are replaced by new ones.

The main defects of the covers, such as closures, cracks, breakdowns, bearing wear, breakage or loss of elasticity of the brush holders, wear of the brushes are subject to repair, and worn bearings are replaced with new ones. Closure to the cover is checked with a control lamp, brush holders are isolated from the cover, cracks and splits in the covers are brewed, and then cleaned flush.

Main control and diagnostics methods, equipment and devices for their performance

The diagnostics of starters are carried out mainly at TO-2 directly on the car using the E214 device, while it is possible to check the electrical circuit of the high-voltage starter for the insulation state. In case of clearly faulty operation, and in case of seasonal TO-2 forcibly, the starter is removed from the car and transferred to the electric workshop, where after cleaning, comprehensive diagnostics are carried out on benches of type 532 M, E211, 532-2M. After installation and attachment of starter in special grip of bench check in idle mode - start starter, let it work 30 s and measure current intensity by ammeter) and speed of armature rotation (with portable tachometer). The current must be no greater than and the rotation speed not less than the standard values (for example, for CT 230 the current must not exceed 85 A and the rotation speed must not be less than 4000 min-1).

If positive results are obtained after the check, the starter is checked in full braking mode, for this purpose, a special device with a dynamometer is installed on stand E211. Lock washer secures brake toothed sector engaging with gear and making it stationary. The "Start bench" button turns on the starter, but not more than 4-6 s and takes the readings of the ammeter and dynamometer (for example, for ST230 the current intensity should not exceed 530 A, and the torque should be not less than 225 kgf * m).

If during the test the starter armature rotates, with the gear braked, this indicates a slip in the idle clutch - it should be replaced. If the current consumed during the test exceeds the norm, and the torque is lower than the norm, this may indicate the closure of both windings to the housing ("by mass"), interturn closure in the excitation winding coils, closure of the collector plates and mechanical malfunctions. The low torque and reduced current may be due to wear of the brushes, oxidation or lubricating of the manifold, etc.

Maintenance

TO-1 - perform cleaning, fastening and control inspection operations, paying special attention to the state of insulation of wires and contacts of the external circuit. Grind the strongly oxidized contacts, replace them when the wires are soldered or broken at the points of connection with the terminals. Check the starting of the engine by the starter, if any failures are detected, the starter must be handed over to the electrical shop for check.

TO-2 - Perform scope of work at TO-1. Check the starter operation by starting the engine; after carrying out diagnostics with portable devices or using motor testers, a conclusion is made about the technical condition of the starter. It is previously necessary to remove the protective tape, check the condition of the brushes and manifold; when greased, it is rubbed with rags wetted in gasoline; traces of burning and oxidation can be removed by slipping a strip of skin under the brushes with grain to the collector (grain size 100140). Then blow with compressed air. In case of obvious malfunction and seasonal TO-2, it is necessary to transfer the starter to the electrical workshop for diagnostics, maintenance and repair.

Repair operations

Starter faults or damages are eliminated by replacement of faulty parts. The only repair operation that can be performed is the turning of the manifold.

Disassembly. Nut is screwed on lower contact bolt of traction relay and output of stator winding is disconnected from it. Nuts for traction relay attachment are screwed and removed. Screw for attachment of tightening protective tape on cover on side of collector is loosened and tape with gasket is removed. Screws for attachment of brush leads are screwed out and the latter are removed. At starter 35.3708 stop washer is removed from rear end of shaft.

Nuts of tightening studs are screwed out, studs are screwed out and cover is removed from drive side together with anchor. The cover is disconnected from the housing from the side of the manifold. Rubber plug of lever is removed from cover, axis of lever 3 of starter drive is expanded and removed, lever and armature are removed from cover.

To remove the drive from the armature, the locking ring is removed from under the limiting ring 1. The drive is disassembled after the locking ring coupling is removed from the hub. After disassembly, parts are blown with compressed air and rubbed.

Starter test

Health Check Execution Order:

Closing the switch at voltage of 12 V current source three times turn on the starter with different braking conditions. For example, with braking moments 2, 6 and 10 Nm (0.2; 0.6 and 1 kgf· m).

Duration of each starter actuation must be not more than 5 s, and intervals between actuations must be not less than 5 s.

If the starter does not rotate the toothed rim of the bench or its operation is accompanied by abnormal noise, then disassemble the starter and check its parts.

Full braking test:

Brake the gear ring of the bench, start, starter and measure current, voltage and braking torque, which must be not more than 550 A, not more than 7.5 V and not less than 13.7 N· m (1.4 kgf· m) for starter 35.3708, respectively.

For starter ST221 current must be not more than 500 A, and voltage not more than 6.5 V. The duration of starter start must be not more than 5 s.

If the braking moment is lower and the current intensity is higher than the specified values, then the reason for this may be a turn-to-turn closure in the stator and armature winding or a closure of the windings to mass.

If the braking torque and current consumption are lower than the above values, the cause may be oxidation and contamination of the collector, severe wear of the brushes or a decrease in the elasticity of their springs, hanging of the brushes in the brush holders, loosening of the attachment of the leads of the stator winding, oxidation or burning of the contact bolts of the traction relay.

During full braking the starter armature must not turn; if this occurs, the idle clutch is faulty.

To repair the faults, disassemble the starter and replace or repair the damaged parts.

Idling test:

Disengage the rig gear rim from the starter gear.

Start, starter and measure the current and speed of starter armature consumed by it, which must be not more than 60 A (35 A for ST221 starter), and 5000 ± 1000 min-1 at voltage at starter terminals 11.5-12 V.

If the current and speed of the armature shaft differ from these values, the reasons may be the same as in the previous test.

Traction relay check:

Install gasket with thickness of 12.8 mm between limiting ring (3) and gear and turn on relay.

Check the relay actuation voltage, which must be not more than 9 V at ambient temperature (20 ± 5) ° С.

If the voltage is higher, this indicates a failure of the relay or actuator.

Conclusion

In our final qualification work, we have completed the following tasks:

We analyzed the topic, its relevance to car maintenance and repair.

They calculated the electrical department, in particular, determined the periodicity of TO-1 and TO2, calculated the standards for overhaul mileage, calculated the labor intensity for conducting TO-1 and TO2, calculated the minimum number of working departments and the minimum production area of ​ ​ the department.

They selected technological equipment and equipment for the electrical department.

Based on the selected equipment, the technical and economic indicators were calculated, namely:

the number of workers in the department - 1;

fixed assets value - 1283967.37 rub.

the cost of the wage fund is 117012.6 rubles.

shop expenses - 342820.71

cost of repair works 1145.243 rubles per 1000 km of mileage.

Drawings content

icon Диагностика неисправностей.cdw

Диагностика неисправностей.cdw

icon Планировка.cdw

Планировка.cdw

icon Схема подключения стартера.cdw

Схема подключения стартера.cdw

icon Чертеж.cdw

Чертеж.cdw
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