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Manure harvesting process diagram

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Course project. Drawings, Explanatory Note

Project's Content

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Additional information

1. Introduction

The main task of the agro-industrial complex at the present stage is to increase the production of competitive products through the technical re-equipment of livestock breeding, the introduction of automated, rotary conveyer flow and technical lines and robotic complexes; complex mechanization of production and wide use of computers in control of technological processes and equipment.

Of particular importance are the problems of reducing the cost of production and increasing the profitability of livestock production.

Livestock farms and complexes with low-efficiency, metal-intensive and energy-intensive equipment, built according to model projects of the 1970s, currently do not provide this task.

One of the main directions of livestock development is the technical re-equipment of this industry, the design and construction of new livestock farms, as well as the reconstruction of old existing farms and their equipping with modern equipment. The observance of economic standards is also important, since the transfer of livestock to an industrial basis marks a new stage in the development of agriculture, which is characterized by a high level of economic efficiency of production and productivity. At the same time, the concentration of large groups of animals in a limited area and their unrelated content lead to the fact that huge yields of liquid manure are obtained at livestock complexes. So, when producing 1 kg of milk, the amount of manure is up to 5 kg, pork - 20 kg, beef - 25 kg. At the pig breeding complex for growing and fattening 108 thousand heads per year, with the hydraulic washing method of manure harvesting from the premises, up to 1 million m3 of manure effluents are accumulated annually, which corresponds to the amount of fecal domestic effluents from a city with a population of up to 200 thousand people. However, it should be noted that this volume of manure effluents contains up to 1.5 thousand tons of nitrogen, up to 800 tons of phosphorus and up to 1.3 tons of potassium, which can be fertilized up to 5 thousand hectares of agricultural land.

It is clear from this that the problem of the rational use of manure as an organic fertilizer to create its own feed base (obtaining the necessary amount of cheap full-fledged fodder), while respecting the requirements of environmental protection (soil, air basin, water bodies) from pollution by industrial livestock waste, is of crucial national economic importance. This problem is generally one of the most complex, since its solution is at the junction of various branches of scientific and technical knowledge.

A comprehensive and effective solution to the problem requires a systematic approach, which includes consideration in the interconnection of production operations throughout the production line: from the stall of the animal to the place of full implementation of the manure, taking into account compliance with environmental protection requirements and ensuring the necessary sanitary and hygienic working conditions of the maintenance personnel.

Due to the concentration of livestock on large farms and complexes, instead of the usual solid (bedding) manure, they began to receive liquid, bedless. Therefore, two completely different technologies for harvesting, removing, storing and processing to obtain solid or liquid manure are currently used. In any case, the final operation in manure harvesting technology is its storage.

Manure is a valuable organic fertilizer containing all the nutrients necessary for plant growth. For example, cattle manure contains 3.2% nitrogen, 2.0% phosphorus oxide and 3.1% potassium oxide.

The sanitary protection zone around the livestock complex should be a section of territories stretched in the direction of the prevailing winds. The size of the zone in this direction depends on the capacity of the enterprise and the manure processing system. Fattening plants should be located on the leeward side at a distance of at least 8 km from the nearest settlement and at least 3.5 km from residential buildings. Sanitary protection areas should be landscaped and landscaped in order to minimize the impact of the livestock complex on the state of the environmental air environment .

2. Review of literature on the subject of the course project.

Classification of manure

The developed classification includes mechanical and hydraulic systems of mechanization tools for manure collection and removal. In turn, the mechanical system comprises mobile and stationary means for collecting, removing and treating both solid and liquid manure.

According to the purpose, manure harvesters are divided into: facilities for cleaning premises, facilities for accumulating and removing manure, facilities for transporting it and treating it for subsequent disposal. In addition to those designed to carry out daily operations to clean and remove manure, there are also means to periodically remove tracked manure from cows while keeping cows on a deep, non-replaceable bedding, as well as to clean outbeds from manure, remove deep, non-replaceable bedding and litter from poultry houses.

The choice of the method and means of mechanizing manure harvesting from cattle premises is determined by the technology of keeping animals, the layout of the premises, the space-planning solution of the farm or complex and the provision of bedding materials. In the presence of bedding, it is advisable to use the bedding method of keeping animals, since it contributes to the creation of more favorable sanitary and hygienic conditions for animals and contributes to the production of high-quality fertilizers, as well as facilitates their processing and rational use. To mechanize the introduction of bedding into stalls and boxes, mobile feed dispensers are used, and when keeping animals on deep bedding, tractor manure dispensers are used. The use of trailed tractor machines for these purposes requires a sufficient width of through manure passages. The scattering of the bedding by feeders from the feed passages leads to the ingress of bedding materials into feeders and dryers. In this regard, the Machine System for 1981-1990 provides for the development and production of a special bedding spreader designed for servicing at least 200 heads with a capacity of about 10 tons/h.

Manure removal from premises for unrelated keeping of cattle on deep bedding is performed by bulldozer. It is also an effective means of manure harvesting with limited use of bedding, and in some cases with insensitive maintenance of animals. When manure is removed by bulldozer from rooms for box or combibox maintenance of animals, the manure passage must have the form of a rectangular tray with a width of at least 2200 mm and a depth of 200 mm. If it is used in premises for tying cows, then the passage is made in the form of two grooves 150-200 mm deep and 550 mm wide with a distance of 1100 mm between them. The total width of the passage should be 2200 mm. The bulldozer shovel must conform to the shape of the canal. Hinged scraper with width of 1100 mm is installed in its middle part.

At bedding, manure is bulldozed directly into manure storage or onto compost preparation sites adjacent to livestock premises. If the manure content is unsupervised, manure is discharged through manholes at the ends of manure passages inside the room into manure collectors or into a transverse collector.

NIPTIMES NZ recommends to equip the bulldozer with hinged side cheeks 1000-1200 mm long, controlled by hydraulic cylinders, in order to prevent the flow of insensitive manure outside the tray. The bulldozer equipped with them acquires a tank capable of holding up to 1.5 tons of manure. Thanks to this, it all retracts in one pass of the unit, which dramatically reduces the time of the tractor in the room. The use of a bulldozer in combination with a transverse conveyor avoids through-holes and significantly reduces heat loss compared to pushing manure outside the premises when the gates remain open for a long time. When using a bulldozer, the floor of the passages should be monolithic of concrete not lower than grade 200 and thickness not less than 180 mm with a slope of 0.5% in the direction of manure transportation. To ensure unimpeded passage of the unit on both sides of the tray, a free space with a width of 200-250 mm should be provided.

1) Mobile means for manure harvesting

Mobile manure harvesting facilities include a bulldozer scraper (bulldozer canopy) BN1 and a bulldozer scraper mounted BSN1.5. In addition to these machines, in 1981-1990. it is planned to create and develop the production of a mobile unit for cleaning manure from premises and from pit sites, which would be able not only to grab manure, but also to transport it outside the farm or complex. Mobile means of collecting bedding manure are used both in tethered and unrelated content. Manure driveways must be 2.2-2.7 m wide. In order to avoid cooling of the premises, they make entry gates of the car type and create protective air curtains with an air intake from the middle of the room.

2) Stationary means for manure harvesting and disposal

Stationary manure harvesters include circular scraper conveyors TSN2.0B, TSN-160; scraper installations of back and forth motion of US15 and UTN10; scraper rope-rod installations TC1. In addition to these, the system of machines for 1981-1990 includes a new modification of the TSN160 manure transporter for manure harvesting from transverse channels (manure harvesting conveyor KPN100) and a modification of the US250 scraper plant with a contour length of up to 250 m. It is also envisaged to develop a new modification of the scraper plant for manure harvesting from under slotted floors and a set of hydraulic channel equipment.

Stationary TSN type manure conveyors and US15 scrapers can be used in a tethered or unrelated method of maintenance, both for bedding and for bedding animals. Chain manure conveyors TSN160 and TSN2.0B are used only when tying animals. When using scrapers in the case of tethered insensitive content of cows in order to reduce the cost of cleaning stalls and manure passages, the length of the stalls should be reduced to 1500-1650 mm, and the manure tray expanded to 550 mm. At the same time, the height of the front edge of the feeder should not exceed 250 mm, so that the cow can lie freely holding its head above the feeder. Fixation of animals in the required position is achieved due to the appropriate structure of the feeder enclosure, as well as by the use of separators. In the rooms so equipped, the cost of manual labor for cleaning stalls is reduced by 2 times. If the prefabricated cross header is located at the end of the room, then the drive stations of the scraper units should be located in it behind the cross header; their installation in the opposite end can lead to an increase in the force in the traction chain by 25% and, as a result, to an acceleration of its wear. The places of discharge of manure into the transverse channel are best made in the form of open fenced hatches 400 mm wide, and 200 mm longer than the width of the tray. If the arrangement of open hatches is not possible under specific conditions, then the channel is closed with a hinged cover, raises my automatically when the scraper of the scraper unit approaches. To this end, it is equipped with a wedge protruding forward by 800-1000 mm. Manure is transported along transverse channels by TSN2.0B conveyors, as well as by USN8 and US10 units .

The ESD-8 and TC1 plants, due to their long length, can collect manure from two or more adjacent livestock premises. In this case, the sections of the channel located between the rooms for the winter period should be more reliably insulated .

It is advisable to transport manure with a humidity of 76-91% outside the territory of the farm or complex to the manure reservoir using piston plants for transporting manure UTN10. The pressure piping is made of 300 mm diameter steel pipes and is * below the ground freezing level. The main advantage of plants of this type is the ability to transport, thick bedding manure and supply it to the manure reservoir from below "under the level," which prevents its freezing. The sanitary condition of farms or complexes is also significantly improved. The inclined conveyor should be made slightly longer in such a way that, in the event of a failure of the piston unit or plugging of the manure line, manure can be unloaded directly into the tractor trailer. Such redundancy allows to achieve high reliability of the process of manure transportation outside the farm area. In order to prevent inclined conveyors from freezing in the harsh winter months, it is necessary that in the vestibule, and the air pressure is higher than atmospheric. To do this, it is enough to supply air from the animal holding room with the help of a small fan. Conventional centrifugal fan is installed in opening of wall separating tambour from livestock room and is equipped with deflector directing air flow directly to inclined conveyor. Of course, this measure is effective only if the vestibule gate closes quite tightly. Without this, you cannot create the necessary support in it.

Chain - scraper conveyors of circular motion.

Scraper manure conveyor TSN - 2.0B is designed for manure harvesting from livestock premises and loading it into vehicles. It consists of horizontal and inclined conveyors, each of which has its own drive, and a control cabinet cabinet. Horizontal conveyor including forged chain with scrapers, rotary device and drive station is arranged in open concreted tray, inner wall and bottom of which are lined with boards. The horizontal conveyor circuit is tensioned by moving the movable frame of the drive station.

Inclined conveyor has the same as horizontal one, forged chain with scrapers, metal chute with support post, rotary device and drive, movement of which is controlled by chain tension. The conveyor is installed at an angle to the horizon of no more than 30˚, due to which manure is supplied to a height of 2680 mm from the zero elevation of the cow floor. The speed of the inclined conveyor chain is significantly higher than horizontal, which is necessary to ensure the discharge of liquid manure.

Scraper manure conveyor TSN - 160

Designed for the same purposes as TSN - 2.0B. It consists of independent horizontal and inclined conveyors and a control cabinet. The first includes a round-link heat-treated chain with metal scrapers fixed on it, automatic tensioning and rotary devices and a drive. The latter includes an electric motor, a two-stage reduction gear with a gear ratio of 38.86 and a belt five-stream transmission located behind it. The horizontal conveyor is laid in a concrete tray, the inside of the bottom of which is reinforced by a steel strip of 4x20 mm. The inclined conveyor has the same round-link chain with scrapers, a metal trough with a support post, a rotary and tensioning device and a drive consisting of an electric motor and a two-stage cylindrical reduction gear with a gear ratio of 27.85.

At an air temperature below 263 K, the room in which the inclined conveyor is located shall be heated. It is installed at an angle of not more than 30˚ to the horizon, which allows for the supply of manure at a height of 2650 mm from the zero elevation of the cow floor. The height of the space in which the conveyor is installed shall be at least 3350 mm.

TSN - 160 (16x80 mm) conveyor links are harvested from a bar with a diameter of 20 mm. Horizontal conveyor has automatic self-tightening device of gravitational action. Cantilevered scrapers move manure towards inclined unloading conveyor, which is driven by 4 kW electric motor through V-belt transmission, reduction gear and drive sprocket. The speed of the scrapers is 0.19 m/s, and the pitch is 1.12 m.

The inclined conveyor is driven by an electric motor with a power of 1.5 kW and has a circuit speed of 0.72 m/s. Tension of inclined conveyor chain is controlled by screw.

In this project, for manure harvesting, I chose the TSN - 160 circular scraper manure conveyor

Drawings content

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