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Industrial ventilation of the blacksmith shop

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Coursework on the ventilation of the blacksmith shop. Drawings, Explanatory Note

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Additional information



1. Source Data

1.1 Description of building, building structures and technology

1.2 Meteorological data

1.3 Industrial hazards and measures to combat them

2. Thermal balance of rooms

2.1 Heat flow rate

2.2 Heat Inputs

2.3 Heat Balance Analysis

3. Local exhaust ventilation

3.1 Selection of local suction types and calculation of their capacity

3.2 Design and hydraulic calculation of exhaust systems

4. Local plenum ventilation

5. General exchange ventilation

5.1 Calculation of air exchanges

5.2 Calculation and selection of equipment

5.3 System Design and Hydraulic Calculation

List of used literature


Blacksmiths are used for heat treatment of parts and tools. Production processes in blacksmiths include heating metal blanks for subsequent processing. The main equipment of the blacksmith shops is heating furnaces. Billets are heated in furnaces of various types. In blacksmiths, the following types of heat treatment of parts are carried out: firing, normalization, cementation, hardening, tempering, nitriding, cyanidation.

A number of requirements are made for furnaces. The furnaces shall be compact and have good thermal insulation of the outer lining layer. Refractory and heat insulation materials shall be of high quality. Refractory bricks and articles should be dense with the least number of pores, seams between bricks should not pass gases. The furnace masonry shall be enclosed in a metal casing. The casing temperature during operation of the furnace shall not exceed 5060 fr.

Ventilation of blacksmith shops is carried out due to aeration, blowing plants and local exhaust from furnaces, miners, baths. Localization of vapors and gases emitted from baths is carried out by means of shelters, and gases emitted from furnaces, except those operating on gas fuel - umbrellas.

The main harmful production emissions of blacksmiths are convective and radiant heat, dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Blacksmiths usually belong to workshops with significant excess of obvious heat.

The category of severity of work is heavy III.

1.3 Industrial hazards and measures to combat them

The main harmful production emissions of blacksmiths are convective and radiant heat, dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, oil and water vapors from quench baths. Pig shops belong, as a rule, to workshops with significant excess heat.

The total air exchange of the workshops is calculated for assimilation of heat wastes with a dissolution test to the level of maximum permissible concentrations of released harmful gases in the cold period of the year. At workplaces subject to heat radiation with intensity of more than 350 W/m2, air strangulation is provided. Mechanical ventilation is usually used in combination with natural aeration.

3. Local exhaust ventilation

Various harmful emissions enter the air of the working rooms.

Harmful substances in the blacksmith shop are mainly radiant and convective heat emitted from the hot surfaces of heating furnaces, heated products, as well as through the open hole of furnaces. Indoor air can also be contaminated with oil and water vapors, metal dust when working on machines, carbon vapors from furnaces during hardening of products, as a result of which the air temperature, its relative humidity and purity changes.

In order for the state of the air to meet the requirements of regulatory materials, it is necessary to carry out a set of various measures, including technological, space-planning and ventilation solutions. When solving ventilation, it is necessary to strive to ensure that all technological processes and equipment that are sources of emission of harmful substances, if possible, are equipped with local suction, which removes hazards with the lowest air flow rate. Suction should be as close as possible to the source of harmful emissions and, if possible, separate it from the room.

The removed air must not pass through the breathing zone of the worker.

Drawings content

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