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Development of technological design of production and technical base for maintenance and maintenance of 20 NEFAZ 5299 and 40 PAZ 3206 vehicles

  • Added: 09.07.2014
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Description

Academic year project: Development of the technological project of technological base for TO and TP of 20 buses NEFAZ 5299 and 40 avtobusovpaz 3206.2 drawings, the specification, PZ

Project's Content

Name Size
icon proektirovanie_atp_po_to_i_tr_avtobusov.zip
631 KB
icon ATP
icon Aggregate_section.cdw
123 KB
icon ATP.doc
2 MB
icon PC_1.cdw
201 KB
icon Specification_of_AU.cdw
62 KB
icon PC_Specification.cdw
70 KB
icon PK2_specification.cdw
60 KB

Additional information

Contents

Contents

Job for Course Project

Paper

Contents

Introduction

1. General part

1.1 Characteristics of NEFAZ 5299 and PAZ 3206 vehicles as objects

maintenance and maintenance

1.2 Vehicle Maintenance Features

1.3 Features of current repair (TR) of cars

1.4 Possible vehicle faults

2. Demand Program Calculation

2.1 Correction of vehicle mileage to CG and maintenance periodicity

2.2 Correction of mileage by average daily mileage of cars

2.3 Number of CG, MT and RU per vehicle per operation cycle up to CG

2.4 Determination of cycle-to-year transition factor

2.5 Calculation of annual quantities of RC, MT and RO for the entire fleet of cars

2.6 calculation of the number of diagnostic impacts of D-1 and D-2 on the entire fleet per year

2.7 Definition of daily programs of EO, TO-1, TO-2, D-1 and D-

2.8 Calculation of annual scope of work of RW, MT, TR

2.9 Distribution of annual labor intensity TO-1 and TO-2 by types of works

2.10 Annual labor intensity of self-service works of ATP

2.11 Distribution of self-service works by types

2.12 Distribution of TR post works by types

2.13 Distribution of labor intensity of TR works by sections

2.14 Total annual labour intensity of diagnostic works during performance

TO-1, TO-2 and TR

2.15. Annual labour intensity of diagnostic works D-

2.16. Annual labour intensity of diagnostic works D-

2.17. Average value of labor intensity of D-1 works required for calculation

diagnostic posts

2.18. Average labor intensity of D-2 works required for calculation

diagnostic posts

2.19. Total annual labor intensity of TD, TO-1, TO-2, TR and

2.20 Calculation of the number of workers

3. Process calculation

3.1 Operation mode of maintenance and maintenance zones

3.2. Choice of method of maintenance and maintenance of cars

3.3 Calculation of indicators for maintenance engineering of TO-1 zones

cars in universal posts

3.4 Calculation of indicators for maintenance engineering of TO-2 zones

cars in universal posts

3.5 Calculation of indicators for TR post work area design

3.6 Calculation of indicators for design of D-1 and D-1 dedicated posts

3.7 Determination of production areas

3.8. Calculation of storage and domestic areas

3.9. Calculation of indicators for EO area design

4. Developing a Common Layout

4.1 Production Building Layout

4.2 Calculation of the number of windows for natural light

4.3 Organization of maintenance and maintenance of cars at the designed enterprise

5. Calculation of energy indicators

5.1 Calculation and selection of equipment

5.2 Calculation of energy parameters of the aggregate section

5.3 Description of the industrial organization area

Conclusion

List of literature

Maintenance cycle schedules, daily schedule of cars and maintenance zones

Specification

Introduction.

The efficiency of road transport depends to a large extent on the technical readiness of the composition, which is ensured by the timely and high-quality maintenance and repair.

Of all modes of transport, road is the most labor-intensive and phondom-intensive. Every year, huge funds are spent on its maintenance, exceeding the costs of the national economy for all other modes of transport combined. Despite this, the efficiency of road transport is growing extremely slowly. One of the main reasons for this is the lag in the development and improvement of the production base of motor transport enterprises, the pace of growth of rolling stock and the change in its quality structure.

The further development of the production base of road transport is proposed by the construction of new ATPs, the development, technical re-equipment and reconstruction of existing enterprises on the basis of achievements in the field of technical operation of cars. These tasks are primarily solved in the process of high-quality design and reconstruction of ATP, which provides for the development of the most rational planning of production departments and buildings of the enterprise.

Application of progressive forms and methods of maintenance and maintenance of rolling stock, high level of mechanization of production processes, use of modern means of diagnosing the technical condition of the car, scientific organization of labor.

Such design should fully meet the construction, architectural, economic and other requirements, take into account the structural features of the rolling stock, the modern level of technology and organization of production, the prospects for the development of ATP,

The purpose of the course project is the development of a motor transport enterprise, the technological design of areas and a section of ATP.

1.2. Car maintenance features:

Maintenance of vehicles, like any other mechanism, does not remain unchanged during long-term operation. It deteriorates due to wear of mechanisms, parts and other malfunctions. It is possible to increase durability of cars by means of timely maintenance, that is service of cars, to appropriate storage, use of the required operational materials, the correct organization of maintenance and maintenance (TO and TP).

Maintenance means a set of systematic effects, the purpose of which is to prevent the occurrence of malfunctions and reduce wear and tear.

For cars, according to the "Regulation on Maintenance," a planned warning service system is traditionally provided. The following types of maintenance and diagnostics are installed.

- Daily service (LO);

- Maintenance No. 1 (TO-1);

- Maintenance No. 2 (TO-2);

- seasonal maintenance (CO);

- Diagnostics (D-1 and D-2).

Let's take a look at the execution specifics for each service type

1.2.1. Daily Service (EO):

It is performed daily at interschange time and includes control inspection work on control mechanisms, lighting devices, cockpits, bodies, cleaning and wiping drying operations, as well as filling with fuel, oil, compressed air and cooling liquid. Car washing is carried out according to the need depending on weather conditions and sanitary requirements, as well as requirements for the appearance of the car.

1.2.2. Maintenance No. 1 (TO-1):

It consists in external technical inspection of the entire car and in performing control diagnostic, fastening, adjustment, lubrication, electrical and filling operations in the established volume with checking the engine, steering, brakes and other mechanisms. TO-1 is carried out in inter-shift time periodically at established intervals of mileage and must ensure failure-free operation of units, mechanisms and systems of the car within the limits between two TO-1.

1.2.3. Maintenance No. 2 (TO-2):

It includes a more in-depth diagnosis or check of the condition of all mechanisms and devices of the car (with the removal of electrical equipment and power supply devices for their control and adjustment in the workshops), the performance of fixing, adjustment, lubrication and other works in the established volume, as well as verification of the actions of units, mechanisms and devices during their operation.

1.2.4. Seasonal Service (CO):

Includes TO-2 works and additional works that are performed in preparation of the car for winter or summer operation.

In accordance with the planned warning system "Regulation on Maintenance and Repair of Rolling Stock of Road Transport," the current repair (TR) and overhaul (CR) of the car and its units, units and mechanisms are provided.

1.2.5. Diagnostics (D-1 and D-2):

Specialized diagnostic work is concentrated in two areas, D-1 and D-2. At the first section, mechanisms ensuring vehicle traffic safety are diagnosed. In this case, diagnostic work must be combined with troubleshooting and monitoring. In the second section, in-depth diagnostics of the car as a whole and its main units are carried out. All vehicles subject to Tp (except those for which repairs are obvious) also pass through the D-2 section. This type of diagnostics is carried out on the eve of scheduled maintenance in order to forward cars subject to TO2 to the maintenance zone in advance with a large amount of repair. Sections D-1 and D-2 can be used for repeated, final diagnostics of cars. They can be made in the form of posts or lines. Universalization of D-1 and D-2 sections is possible by selective use of posts and diagnostic equipment in different shifts.

1.3. Features of current repair (TR) of cars:

Manufacturers at the expense of the design and manufacturing technology provide for a certain reliability and durability of individual parts, units and the car as a whole.

In accordance with the planned warning system, the provision provides for the ongoing repair (TR) of cars and units. Maintenance repairs are carried out in the conditions of a motor transport enterprise (ATP) and at maintenance stations (STOA).

The current repair consists in the elimination of minor faults and failures, contributing to the implementation of the established standards of mileage of the car before overhaul. Current repair is performed by disassembly, locksmith, welding and other works and replacement of other parts in the units and separate units and units in the car, which require current repair, respectively. TR is performed according to the demand, as a result of inspection of the vehicle after returning from the maintenance line or malfunction detected during operation on the line.

Units on the car during the current repair change when the repair time of the unit exceeds the time required for its replacement.

1.4. Possible car malfunctions and their causes.

1.4.1 Engine.

The engine does not start:

- No fuel in the tank;

- Presence of air in the fuel system;

- Adjustment of fuel injection advance angle is exceeded;

- Adjustment of ignition advance angle has been exceeded;

- The water that got into the fuel lines or the intake grid of the fuel tank was frozen.

The engine does not develop the necessary power, it operates unstable, smoke output:

- Air filter or air intake cap is clogged;

- Insufficient fuel supply;

- Nozzle is faulty;

- Carburetor is faulty;

- Fuel pump is faulty;

- Adjustment of heat clearances in the gas distribution mechanism has been exceeded;

- Poor compression due to failure of the piston group or loose fitting of the valves to the seats;

- Fuel thickened (in cold season).

Knock during engine operation:

- Early injection of fuel into cylinders;

- Early ignition;

- Large gaps in the gas distribution mechanism;

- Valve of gas distributing mechanism is plugged in bushings (piston touches valve).

Pressure reduction in lubrication systems:

- High oil temperature;

- Filter elements of the full-flow oil filter were contaminated;

- Oil intake of oil filter is clogged;

- Malfunctions and leaks in the lubrication system;

- Oil pump valves clogged or faulty

- Unacceptable increased clearance in crankshaft bearings;

Elevated liquid temperature in the cooling system:

- Water pump is faulty;

- Water pump drive belts are loosely stretched;

- Thermostat is faulty;

The outer surface of the radiator core has become contaminated.

Increased coolant flow:

- The radiator is damaged;

- Leakage of liquid through connections in the cooling system;

- Fluid leak through water pump gland (end seal);

- Cooling fluid enters lubrication system through rubber sealing rings of cylinder liners or through rubber gasket of cylinder block head.

1.4.2. Clutch.

The clutch slips:

- No free stroke of clutch actuation;

- Ingress of lubricant on friction surface;

- Wear or tear of friction linings.

The clutch "leads":

- Clutch actuation drive does not provide required stroke of clutch disengagement fork shaft lever.

Clutch drive jamming:

- Swelling of clutch hydraulic drive sealing cuffs and loss of tightness due to application of non-recommended or contaminated braking liquids.

Delay of clutch actuation when touching from the seat during gear shifting:

- Solidification of working fluid (increase of viscosity) in the drive;

- Failure in pneumatic cylinder.

1.4.3. Gearbox.

Self-disconnection of gears on the road:

- Incomplete actuation of the transmission due to malfunction of the retainers of the actuation mechanism, wear of the legs of the forks, loosening of the attachment of the forks and levers, unregulation of the clutch control.

Transmissions are not included:

- Wear of parts and unregulation of clutch control;

- Destruction of gears bearings of the secondary shaft.

Increased gearbox noise:

- Increased wear and tear of gear teeth.

- Destruction of gear bearings;

- Shaft bearings destruction;

Leaf

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Oil leak from gearbox:

- Wear or loss of elasticity of glands;

- Increased pressure in the gearbox crankcase;

- Tightness violation on sealing surfaces.

1.4.4. Driving bridges.

Increased noise when driving at a speed of 30-60km/h:

- Contact spot is shifted towards wide part of driven gear teeth.

Increased braking noise:

- Contact spot is shifted towards narrow part of teeth of driven bevel gear.

Pulsed noise at clutch start and gear shift:

- Contact spot is located closer to teeth tops.

Continuous howling when driving:

- Severe wear or damage to gears;

- Loosening of bearings attachment;

- Heavy wear of bearings;

- Insufficient oil level in the crankcase;

- Leak of lubricant through glands in connectors of covers.

1.4.5. Steering.

Insufficient or uneven operation of hydraulic booster:

- Insufficient oil level in the hydraulic booster tank;

- Presence of air (foam in the tank, turbid oil) or water in the system;

- Excessive tension in steering gear;

- Pump failure;

- Increased oil leakage in the steering gear as a result

wear or damage of O-rings;

- Periodic hanging of bypass valve.

The steering wheel turns with great force:

- Remove the seat of the pump safety valve;

- Suspension of pump bypass valve;

- Misalignment of steering safety valve spring.

Knocking in steering gear:

- Increased clearance in steering gear;

- Nozzle attachment nut is not tightened;

1.4.5. Brake mechanism.

Jamming of shafts of expansion knuckles of brake mechanisms:

- Ingress of dirt and corrosion of the working surface of the shaft of the expansion knuckle.

Condensate freezing in pneumatic system:

- Absence or insufficient level of alcohol in the fuse against freezing.

Based on the analysis of the vehicles NEFAZ 5299 and PAZ3206 come to

conclusion that for the quality of maintenance and maintenance, even single cars are necessary

Determine the production and technical basis to which the

production facilities, process equipment and

qualified personnel. • •

In this course project, the task is to develop a production technical base for maintenance and maintenance of cars with a number of 60 units, therefore, it is impossible to establish the capacity of the production base unambiguously without appropriate calculations.

The following sections calculate the production program and technical indicators that make it possible to justify the space-planning solutions of the production building for maintenance and maintenance of cars.

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