Design of electrical installations of the potato storage facility UAOUst-Medveditskoye Serafimovichskogor-on of Volgograd region with development of the potato electric pulse treatment unit
- Added: 09.07.2014
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Great economic and social changes are taking place today in the country's agriculture, the concentration and specialization of production is deepening. Under these conditions, the requirements for the quality and safety of all types of agricultural products are especially increasing. Potatoes play an important role in human nutrition. For uninterrupted supply of potatoes throughout the year, it is important not only to remove a good crop, but also to be able to save it without loss.
Storage of potatoes in storage is associated with additional product losses. These losses are due to the injury of tubers during transportation over long distances from the plantation to the city and loading and unloading operations, as well as the delay in laying them for storage. Therefore, the design and construction in collective farms, joint-stock companies, farms and storage associations of a new type is economically justified: it makes it possible to organize the storage of products with less losses on (15... 20%), allows you to create the necessary temperature control mode, as well as carry out acceptance on single mechanized flow lines of high productivity .
1 Characteristics of the design object.
1.1. Brief description of the electrification object.
JSC UstMedveditskoe is located in a northeast part of Serafimovichevsky district of the Volgograd region in 70 km from the regional center, number about 700 people working in economy.
The total land area of the farm is 18.7 thousand hectares, including 16.8 thousand hectares of arable land, about 2 thousand hectares - irrigated plots.
The main types of economic activity are elite seed production.
The main tasks: the production, processing and sale of elite crops in demand, the introduction of advanced scientifically sound technologies for cultivating crops and farming systems.
The farm has about 250 units of cars and tractors, but the equipment is practically not updated and the farm team is doing a great job of restoring it and preparing for agricultural work.
The imbalance in prices in agriculture, agriculture between the cost of machinery, spare parts, gas, electricity dictated by the market and the cost of agricultural products did not allow the economic program of the economy to be implemented.
In connection with the new economic conditions, the management of the economy is introducing the most effective forms of business - the transfer of subdivisions to full intra-business settlement, payment for the final product, updating of fixed assets of production, reconstruction of production based on the competitiveness of new technologies.
The fulfillment of these tasks and the proximity of the economy to the regional center, that is, the convenience of selling products, will be able to turn this type of production activity from unprofitable to highly profitable.
The object of electrification is a potato storage facility located southeast of the farm direction 150 meters.
On the territory of the potato storage there is a warehouse, directly a storage building, a parking lot for transport, a tank for water and a toilet.
Potato storage with a capacity of 1000 tons is intended for storage of seed potatoes.
Power supply of the farm is carried out via an overhead line with a voltage of 10 kV, which is supplied from RTP 110/35/10kV.
Near the potato storage, 10/0.4 kV KTP are installed, from which power is supplied.
The project is dedicated to the design of the microclimate system
1.2. Purpose and objectives of the design.
The purpose of the design is to achieve an effective combination of progressive technologies, machine electrification systems, organizational measures to save energy and labor protection, rational organization of production, allowing for high-efficiency production of agricultural products.
At the same time, it is necessary to use electrical equipment to ensure working operations that improve working conditions and organization of production.
The tasks of the degree design are electrification of the processes of unloading, loading potatoes, i.e. electrification of labor-intensive technological processes, as well as the system for creating and maintaining microclimates and lighting.
The above-mentioned issues of modernization of the technical base are especially important in the context of a market economy and a protracted decline in agricultural production.
Thus, this project is an attempt to imagine the development of agriculture in the future.
2.1 Process and technical solutions for production processes.
2.1.1 Choice of storage method.
The degree of mechanization of work in potato storage, the choice of equipment and heating systems depend on the method of storage. For long-term storage of potatoes, the following methods are used: closed, bulk, bunker. The occlusive and bunker methods are actually a type of bulk. The disadvantages of these methods include the inefficient use of internal storage, the complexity of using mechanization tools, the occurrence of temperature drops in the compartments, etc.
The bulk method has recently become most widespread.
It is used in countries such as the UK, USA, etc. This method is cheaper, and product losses when used are much lower.
For this method, an active ventilation system is used, which is necessary to ensure efficient storage.
Based on the above, a bulk storage method is used for design as the cheapest, most efficient and modern.
Its essence lies in the fact that the product is deposited throughout the storage area in a continuous layer without closures. The height of the formed embankment is used 2 meters. 
2.1.2.Select machines for loading and unloading potatoes.
The composition of machines depends on many factors, and above all on the method of storage of products. In this case, mechanically
The following works shall be carried out: unloading of vehicles; loading potatoes for storage; unloading from storage into vehicles.
When loading storage, regardless of the storage method, the mechanisms must ensure that the maximum use is made of the storage height.
In addition, a number of technological requirements on which the safety of potatoes depends should be taken into account.
Potatoes shall not be unduly damaged during operation of the mechanisms. The height of the tubers falling from one working element to another must be 0.3m, and the speed of the transport belt should not exceed 0.81m/s.
During loading, the potatoes shall be evenly distributed throughout the storage chamber. The loader is equipped with a device for distributing potatoes over the height and area of the storage, most fully meets the requirements for the preservation of potatoes. [17,18]
Almost all requirements are met by the TZK-30 transporter.
It is designed to load vegetables, potatoes and root crops into storage, when storing products in bulk, and in closures with disassembled walls no more than 2.5 m high. This loader can be used for transshipment work, as well as as a universal conveyor, for various work (loading vehicles, etc.), which will significantly reduce its payback period. [17,22]
TPK30 picker, designed to unload vegetables and root crops from the storage during bulk storage, is an accessory to the TZK30 loader.
4 Calculation and selection of power equipment and power network with FP
4.1Provide schematic diagrams of distribution and supply networks. Selection of BRU and distribution points.
Control, protection and control tools are placed in boards and panels, which allows not only to concentrate automation tools, but also to protect them from harmful mechanical, temperature and other effects.
The cable length data is derived from the graphic portion by adding 0.2 m to the cable cut for connection to the current collector.
The input and distribution devices are designed to receive and distribute electric energy inside the room. Distribution points, cabinets, power boxes and panels are used for this purpose.
VRU provide connection, switching and protection of power circuits, lighting wiring, as well as groups or individual electric receivers.
The following guidelines shall be followed when selecting the installation location of the switchgears:
The length of the supply line shall be minimal;
network route - easy to operate and available for repair;
Power recharge cases shall be excluded or minimized.
The switchgears shall be placed in the electrical panel or as close as possible to the current collectors, in places convenient for maintenance and at the same time do not interfere with production. Inlet switchgears are selected by: type of environmental protection; number and type of circuit breakers or fuse groups.
Taking into account the technological peculiarities and complex operating plants, we accept two control cabinets complete.
We combine current collectors into separate group lines. The wiring route in the cable ducts is drawn parallel and perpendicular to the space planes.
On the plan of the building we plan routes for laying networks, places of installation of electrical equipment.
4.4 Substantiation of structural design of electrical wiring of the building.
The choice of the connection scheme of electric receivers inside the building depends on the location of consumers regarding the input, as well as the location of receivers relative to each other.
In addition, the selection of the power supply circuit is influenced by the value of the installed power of individual electric receivers and the requirement for reliability of power supply.
Power wiring can be made by main, main-radial and radial diagrams.
The radial power supply scheme is used when there are relatively powerful electric receivers on the site, or when small-power electric receivers are not evenly distributed throughout the territory.
Main circuits are used for electric receivers distributed uniformly over the premises.
In this case, we select a mixed power supply circuit, with the connection of consumers depending on the location.
Wiring shall comply with environmental conditions and architectural features of the room.
The following factors shall be taken into account: - safety; fire and explosion hazard; reliability of operation; ease of use; cost-effectiveness.
The following types of wiring are recommended for agricultural facilities:
open - wiring laid on the surface of walls, ceilings, trusses, supports and other building elements of buildings and structures;
hidden - electrical wiring laid inside structural elements of buildings and structures (in walls, floors, foundations, floors.
According to the method of laying wiring, it should be used: on a cable; on trays and in boxes; in plastic and steel pipes; in metal and rubber hoses; in channels of building structures.
Internal wiring shall correspond to the purpose of the premises, their architectural and structural features.
In the design, distribution networks are made with IWG cable laid in trays and directly on non-combustible bases with braces, since this method of wiring is simple, economical and at the same time meets all the requirements of PUE and PTE and TB. At a height below 1.8 meters, electrical wiring is carried out in cable channels, pipes and metal ducts.
4.5 Diagram development and selection of circuit elements.
The electrical schematic diagram determines the complete composition of the elements and the connections between them, gives a complete idea of the principle of the device, they are used to study the principle of operation, adjustment, as well as for control and repair during work. The schematic diagram shows all elements and devices necessary for operation and control, all connections between them, as well as connection elements.
In the circuits of automatic control of electric drives to prevent failure of electrical equipment and increase the reliability of its operation, electric protections of motors and control circuits are used.
To automatically control the electric drive, we select electromagnetic starters, and to protect the plants from short-circuit currents and overload protection, automatic switches with an electromagnetic and thermal disconnector.
Designed automatic agricultural systems shall be built on the basis of mass-produced instruments, devices and automation equipment,
When selecting equipment, it is necessary to take into account environmental conditions, the presence of dust, vibrations, etc. In addition, the requirements for automation means of flow, sensitivity, inertia, as well as labor protection conditions must be met.
Circuit breaker is selected by type, voltage, nominal current, installation method, nominal current of thermal disconnector. The circuit breaker serves for infrequent switching on and off of power circuits, as well as for protection against short circuit currents and overloads.
Magnetic starters are selected depending on environmental conditions, control circuit, rated current (power) and voltage.
Intermediate relay. It is selected in accordance with the required circuit operation technology, supply voltage, switching current, number and type of switched contacts.
When selecting buttons and switches, it is necessary to take into account the switching voltage and current, the number and type of contacts, the type of pusher and the installation method.
The reliability and safety of the equipment as a whole, numerical, qualitative and economic indicators of the production process, and electrical safety of people depend to a large extent on the correct choice of starting and protective equipment.
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