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Auto grader DZ-143M - exchange rate

  • Added: 01.07.2014
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Description

Course Design - Explanatory with Calculations and 4 Drawings

Project's Content

Name Size
icon avtogrejder_dz_143m.rar
1 MB
icon heading_for_earth-moving_machines_auto_grader
icon Autograder_DZ_143_M
icon Grader.dwg
451 KB
icon patent_drawings.dwg
289 KB
icon EXPLANATORY_NOTE.DOC
1 MB
icon contents.DOC
40 KB
icon format_a2.dwg
169 KB

Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1. Grader

1.1Autograder Description

1.2 Classification of autograder

1.3 Process Flow Charts

2. Mechanization of construction

2.1 Description of the construction site

2.2 Technology, mechanization and organization of construction

2.2.1 Process of works execution

2.2.2 Mechanization of construction

2.3 Organization of works

2.3.1 Definition of replaceable gripper length

2.3.2 Determination of machine performance

2.3.3 Selection of the number of machines in the package

3. Conduct of patent research and analysis of its results

3.1 Development of patent research tasks

3.2 Development of information search regulations

3.3 Search and selection of patent information

3.4 Presentation of search results

3.5 Examination of the essence of found patents

4 Life safety

4.1 Analysis of harmful factors arising during operation of the motor grader

4.2 General Safety Requirements

List of literature

Introduction

The continuous increase in the intensity of road traffic, as well as the increasing need for the construction of new industrial and transport facilities, requires increased productivity in construction and improved performance of roads and other embankments for engineering purposes. The high values ​ ​ of these indicators for such structures are largely determined by the thoroughness of planning work during their layer-by-layer construction, as well as the productivity of profiling machines. The indicators of "evenness" of clothes and coatings of roads, airfields and the upper structure of railway embankments depend on this. Therefore, the operation of profiling structural layers in the general process of construction is quite important and responsible. Therefore, it is necessary to strive to improve the design of profiling and planning machines, in particular, auto graders.

Classification of auto graders

Auto graders can be classified according to the following main characteristics:

a) hang cars: light weighing up to 9 tons, average weighing 1012/t, heavy weighing 1315/t and heavy weighing 1723/t;

b) for the arrangement of running equipment: biaxial - with one or two driving axes and triaxial - with two or three driving axes;

c) according to the system of control of working bodies:

with mechanical (reduction) or hydraulic control.

Light motor graders are used for maintenance and minor repairs of roads and for the construction of dirt roads in zero elevations.

Medium motor graders are used to erect an earthen bed with small fill and excavation marks in soils of optimal humidity and for average road repair.

Heavy and heavy auto graders are advisable to use

in the presence of large volumes of work and in heavy soil conditions.

Typically, auto graders are controlled (rotary) wheels of the front axle; some types of auto graders have controlled wheels of the front and rear axles, which allows them to turn with a significantly smaller radius and allows translational movement, in which the wheels of the rear axle do not move along the finally finished surface of the road.

For the convenience of designating the number of driving axles and axles having steerable wheels, the technical literature often provides conventions:

A x B x C,

where

A - number of axles with controlled wheels;

B - number of driving axes;

B is the total number of machine axes.

Using this marking method, for a two-axle motor grader with two driving axles and all controlled wheels, the wheel circuit will be indicated by 2x2x2; for a three-axle motor grader with two driving and one axle controlled, the wheel circuit will have the form.

Three-axle machines with two driving and one controlled axle (1 x 2 x 3) have, compared to other motor graders, a better planning ability, sufficiently good traction qualities and the ability to maintain the stability of a given rectilinear movement in the presence of a lateral load, for example, when the dump is operated while being pulled to the side. Such a scheme of running equipment has the vast majority of the world fleet of motor graders.

Motor graders with all driving wheels are much more expensive and more difficult to operate, so they are used only when high traction qualities are required from the machine in difficult ground conditions.

Lateral stability of motor graders at lateral loads is achieved due to inclination of driven wheels by means of special mechanism.

The main working tool of the motor grader is a dump with a knife; dump has constant radius of curvature. The following limits for changing the installation angles of the autograder dump have been established by practice: cutting angle b = 30g80 ° with permutation intervals of 35 °; angle of capture (r = 0180 °). The use of a full-turn dump mounting mechanism in the plan makes it possible to operate at any grip angle.

The working equipment of the motor grader consists of a dump mounted on a traction frame and a bricklayer. All operating equipment control mechanisms are driven by cardan shafts from the control box installed on the independent power take-off column. All four wheels of this motor grader are driving and controlled.

The wheel control system allows, for example, turning the front and rear wheels in opposite directions; in this case, the machine will move along the arc of the circle; if the front and rear wheels turn in one direction, then the machine will move progressively at some angle to its longitudinal axis.

Examination of the essence of found patents

Patent No. 2034116

Invention aims at improving reliability of motor grader by unloading hinge of turn of ridge beam relative to sub-engine frame by hydraulic cylinders of turn of ridge beam relative to sub-engine frame.

An object of the invention is to provide an autograider comprising a wheel propeller comprising balance bars with its swing axis. a ridge beam with its rear inclined part mounted on the wheel propeller; a sub-engine frame connected to each other by means of a hinge and two hydraulic cylinders for turning the sill beam relative to the sub-engine frame; a traction frame pivotally attached to the front end of the sill beam, the traction frame being attached to the traction frame of the dump; hydraulic cylinders for pulling out the traction frame and lifting and lowering the dump, which are pivotally connected to the sill beam and the traction frame; angle between plane passing through longitudinal axes of hydraulic cylinders of turn of sill beam and support plane of motor grader lies in the range from 2 to 45 °. Plane passing through longitudinal axes of hydraulic cylinders of turn of sill beam passes through axis of rocking of balancers.

Figure 1 shows an auto grader with a plane angle,

passing through the longitudinal axes of the hydraulic cylinders of the turn of the ridge beam relative to the engine frame to the reference plane of the motor grader, lying in the range from 2 to 45 °; Figure 2 of the auto grader, where the plane passing through the longitudinal axes of the hydraulic cylinders of the turn of the ridge beam is parallel to the rear of the ridge beam; Figure 3 of the auto grader, where the plane passing through the longitudinal axes of the hydraulic cylinders of the turn of the sill beam passes through the swing axis of the balancers .

The motor grader includes a wheel propeller 1 comprising a balance bar 2 with its rocking axis 3, a ridge beam 4 with its rear inclined part 5, and an engine frame 6 mounted on the wheel propeller. Ridge beam 4 is connected to undercarriage frame 6 by means of hinge 7 and two hydraulic cylinders 8 of turn of ridge beam 4 relative to undercarriage frame 6. Traction frame 9 is hinged to front end of ridge beam 4. The dump 10 is attached to the traction frame 9 by means of a turning wheel 11, a mechanism for changing the cutting angle of the dump 10 in the form of hydraulic cylinders 12, guides 13 for extending the dump 10 relative to the traction frame 9. Hydraulic cylinders 14 of pulling-out of traction frame 9 and lifting and lowering of dump 10 are pivotally connected to traction frame 9 and ridge beam 4. Hydraulic cylinders 14 can be connected to ridge beam 4 by means of clamp 15 installed for rotation relative to ridge beam 4. Angle α between plane 16 passing through longitudinal axes of hydraulic cylinders 8 of turn of ridge beam 4 and support plane 17 of motor grader lies in the range from 2 to 45 °. For ease of reading, plane 17 is moved parallel to the top .

The above limit from 2 to 45 ° is chosen due to the fact that the force P from the wheel propeller acts from the swinging axis 3 of the balance bars 2 on the undercarriage under action of the working dynamic maximum forces on the dump at an angle β which lies in the range from 2 to 45 °. On said rocking axis there is a horizontal component of the force P, which includes the dynamic component from the impact by the dump 10 into an insurmountable obstacle and the static component of the clutch of the propeller 1 with the ground. The vertical component of the force P arises from the gravity of the autograder, which can be considered constant. The horizontal component may vary depending on the ground bearing surface, the speed of movement of the motor grader upon impact of the dump 10 against the obstacle. Therefore, the angle β under the action of maximum loads on the dump will be within the specified limits. In order to unload the hinge 7 and improve the reliability of the autograder, it is necessary that the plane 16 is parallel to the force P and therefore that the angle α is equal to the angle β (Figure 1). In order to improve the processability of the motor grader and the unloading of the rear inclined portion 5, the plane 16 passing through the longitudinal axes of the hydraulic cylinders 8 is parallel to the rear inclined portion 5. In order to minimize the concentrated moment from the force P, it is necessary to direct the action of the force P in one plane with the plane 16, that is, that the plane 16 passing through the longitudinal axes of the hydraulic cylinders 8 passes through the axis 3 .

The autograder works as follows.

The dump 10 occupies the desired position in a known manner by means of a rotary wheel 11, a mechanism for changing the cutting angle of the dump 10 in the form of hydraulic cylinders 12, and a mechanism for extending the dump 10 relative to the traction frame 9 with guides 13. The propeller 1 comprising the balancers 2 with its rocking axis 3 generates a pressure force on the dump 10. From the swing axis 3, the reaction P acts on the sub-motor frame 6 and has an angle β in the range of 2 to 45 ° with the reference plane 17 of the auto-grader. In order to unload the hinge 7, it is necessary to load the hydraulic cylinders 8 from the force-reaction P. For this, the angle α must be within 245 °. Note here that hydraulic cylinders 8 remove part of load from hinge 7 .

Patent No. 2036278

The object of the invention is to reduce metal consumption of an autograder by achieving an optimal profile of a ridge beam.

For this purpose, in a motor grader including a wheel propeller and an engine frame and a ridge beam mounted on the propeller, consisting of rear inclined, intermediate and front parts, to the front end of which a traction frame with a turntable is hinged; to which the dump is connected by means of a mechanism for changing the cutting angle and a mechanism for extending the dump; hydraulic cylinders for lifting and lowering the dump, pulling-out of the traction frame, pivotally connected to the sill beam and the traction frame, front part of sill beam is made parallel to traction frame when it is installed in extreme upper position .

The drawing shows an auto grader, a side view.

Proposed grader comprises wheel propeller 1 and undercarriage frame 2 and ridge beam 3 made up of rear 4, intermediate 5 and front 6 parts. Traction frame 7 with turning wheel 8 is pivotally connected to front end of ridge beam 3. Attached to the rotary circle 8 is a dump 9 by means of a mechanism for changing the cutting angle of the dump 9 in the form of hydraulic cylinders 10 and a mechanism 11 for extending the dump 9 of conventional construction. Hydraulic cylinders 12 of lifting and lowering of dump 9 and hydraulic cylinder 13 of pulling-out of traction frame 7 are pivotally connected to ridge beam 3 and traction frame 7 by means of clamp 14 installed for rotation around ridge beam 3. Ridge beam 3 is made parallel to traction frame 7 when it is installed in extreme upper position, i.e. AB section on ridge beam (front part 6 of ridge beam 3) is parallel to SD section (traction frame 7) with maximum raised dump 9, which corresponds to installation of traction frame 7 in extreme upper position. This makes it possible to obtain the maximum compactness of the motor grader and the minimum length of the ridge beam 3, which leads to the minimum metal consumption of the motor grader .

The autograder works as follows.

The wheel propeller 1 imparts motion to the entire motor grader. By hydraulic cylinders of the 12th rise and lowering of a dump 9, hydraulic cylinder of the 13th carrying out of a traction frame 7, turntable 8, hydraulic cylinders of the 10th change of an angle of cutting of a dump 9, mechanism 11 of promotion of a dump 9 last is given a necessary operating position. In extreme upper position of traction frame 7 at maximum lift of dump 9 front part 6 of sill beam 3 is parallel to traction frame 7.

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