ATP Production and Technical Base Project
- Added: 30.12.1899
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In the course work there is an explanatory note, drawings
1. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION
2. PROCESS CALCULATION
2.1. Selection of initial standards. Variance Casting
rolling stock to one model
2.2. Adjusting Standards
2.3. Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Plan
2.4. Production program
2.5. Distribution of maintenance and maintenance capacity by types of works
2.6. Diagnostic Work Program
2.7. Calculation of the number of production personnel
2.8. Distribution of total scope of work by production
zones and sites
2.9 Calculation of the number of maintenance, maintenance and diagnostics
2.10 Calculation of number of waiting places
2.11 Calculation of production and storage areas
2.12 Techno-economic evaluation of calculation results
3. MASTER PLAN AND PRODUCTION PLAN PLANNING
3.1. Calculation of PBX storage area and enterprise territory
3.1.1. Calculation of storage area area
3.1.2. Determination of the area of the enterprise
3.2. Master Plan Description
3.3 Volume-planning solution of the production building
4. TECHNICAL DESIGN OF FUEL ROOM REPAIR SECTION
4.1 Description of works performed in the fuel repair area
4.2 Development of the general process
4.3 Peculiarities of fuel room maintenance and repair
4.3.1 Diagnostics and adjustment of power supply system
4.3.2 Adjustment works on diesel power supply systems
4.3.3 Non-disassembly check of technical condition of diesel
4.3.4 Disassembly and washing of diesel fuel units and parts
4.3.5 Washing and cleaning of parts
4.3.6 Parts defective
4.3.7 Repair of fuel equipment parts and assemblies
4.3.8 Assembly and adjustment of fuel equipment units
4.3.9 Assembly and adjustment of nozzles
4.3.10 Assembly and adjustment of fuel pump
4.3.11 Assembly and check of fuel filters
4.4 Selection of process equipment
4.5 Site Area Calculation
LIST OF SOURCES USED
APPENDIX A GRAPHIC PART (3 A1)
Freight road transport carries out cargo transportation in all sectors of the national economy and thus directly participates in the production of material goods necessary to meet the needs of society.
The main task of organizing and planning production in each road transport enterprise is the rational combination and use of all production resources in order to perform maximum transport work when transporting goods and better service to the population by passenger transportation.
Road transport enterprises, by their purpose, are divided into road transport, car service and car repair.
Road transport enterprises are complex enterprises that carry out the transportation of goods or passengers, storage, maintenance and repair of rolling stock, as well as the supply of necessary operational, repair materials and spare parts.
Road transport enterprises by the nature of the transport work performed are divided into:
passenger (bus, taxi, passenger service of individual organizations)
mixed (freight and passenger)
special (emergency medical care, etc.).
According to private affiliation and the nature of production activities, ATPs are distinguished:
common use, included in the system of ministries of road transport of the Union republics
departmental ATPs belonging to individual ministries and departments.
Public ATPs carry cargo for all enterprises and organizations, regardless of departmental affiliation, carry passengers in buses and taxi cars on city, suburban and international routes.
Departmental ATPs are created at industrial, construction and agricultural enterprises and organizations and carry out as
The rule is the transport of goods related to the production process.
The labor and material costs of maintaining the rolling stock in a technically serviceable condition are significant and several times higher than the costs of its manufacture.
Since for the standard service life of medium-capacity trucks, the structure of labor costs as a percentage of total costs is:
TO and TR - 91%;
overhaul of the car and units - 7%;
car manufacturing - 2%.
Such high maintenance and TR costs are associated with a lag in the production and technical base of road transport in terms of growth rates from the fleet of rolling stock.
Maintenance and repair of rolling stock should be considered as one of the main directions of the technical process in the creation and reconstruction of PTB of road transport enterprises. Mechanization of work during maintenance and repair serves as a material basis for working conditions, improving its safety, and most importantly, contributes to solving the problem of increasing labor productivity, which is especially important in conditions of labor shortage.
The main means of reducing the intensive wear of parts and mechanisms and preventing failures of units or assemblies of the car, i.e. maintaining it in a technically serviceable state, is timely and high-quality maintenance.
Maintenance means a set of operations (harvesting, fastening, adjustment, lubrication) whose purpose is to prevent the occurrence of malfunctions, increase reliability and reduce wear and tear of parts. TO-2, unlike TO-1, is more in-depth and labor-intensive. If at TO-1 the technical condition of the car is determined visually and a small range of works aimed at timely fault detection is performed, then at TO-2 works covering the whole car are performed, while not only the technical condition of the car is determined, but also various types of work are carried out: oil/grease replacement/in friction units, cleaning or replacement of filtering elements, adjustment work. This is due to the fact that TO-2 is performed after a significant period of time in contrast to TO1, for which the car receives significant malfunctions and damage. Therefore, the high-quality implementation of the TO-2 can increase the life of the car.
However, technical thought does not stand still and constantly creates increasingly complex, in its device, cars, maintenance, which requires a lot of effort. Therefore, it is promising to introduce modern equipment into the field of maintenance and maintenance, including diagnostic, as well as advanced training of maintenance personnel, which in turn will affect the quality of the service performed.
The purpose of this course project is to design a section for maintenance and repair of fuel equipment at ATP. In order to specialize the labor of industrial workers, increase labor productivity due to the use of modern equipment and improve the quality of work, and thereby reduce simple transport and its return from the line.
The operability of the rolling stock is ensured by various road transport enterprises designed for the maintenance, repair, storage of cars and the provision of their operational materials.
High labor and material costs for maintaining the rolling stock in a technically serviceable state determine the urgent need to develop a modern production and technical base of road transport enterprises, which will significantly reduce operating costs.
In the near future, road transport should expect an increase in the volume of traffic and the fleet of rolling stock with a significant change in its technical characteristics.
The basis of the efficient operation of motor vehicles is the provision of high reliability - the ability to fail to carry out transport work while maintaining set parameters in time within the specified limits for specific operating modes and operating conditions. Car reliability is ensured by:
improvement of design, adaptability to maintenance, diagnostics, repair and operating conditions created during industrial manufacture;
improving the quality and range of operational materials;
timely and high-quality maintenance and repair;
availability of spare parts and materials of high quality and large nomenclature;
compliance with state standards and rules of technical operation;
high quality of current and overhaul of buses, including their units and assemblies.
When improving the design, improving the quality of used materials and reliability of vehicles, it is possible to exclude a number of maintenance and repair operations or increase the periodicity and reduce the labor intensity of their implementation
By improving the design, improving the reliability of cars, using progressive forms of organization, technology, means of mechanizing the production of maintenance and repair of rolling stock, the labour intensity standards of one TO-1 were reduced over the same period by more than 20%, and TO-2 by almost 2 times; standards of specific labor intensity of current repair (TR) are reduced by almost 3 times.
But improving the design and reliability of vehicles, the application of the achievements of electronics and microelectronics poses increased requirements for their maintenance and repair, which are already being carried out according to the actual technical condition.
Each ATP has a specific capacity. It refers to the maximum amount of products of a certain nomenclature that a production unit (enterprise, workshop, site) can produce per year at a given volume and structure of fixed assets, advanced technology and organization of production and appropriate personnel qualifications.
The production capacity of ATP depends on the list number of rolling stock and its carrying capacity.
The production capacity of the areas of technical and repair of rolling stock, workshops and sections of ATP is determined by the highest throughput capacity of leading production links, maintenance lines, repair posts, etc.
TB production program - scope of maintenance and repair of vehicles, which are performed by ATP for a certain period of time (day, year).
The production capacity of APP TB is the maximum possible amount of maintenance and repair of cars in the established nomenclature and qualitative ratios at a certain level of specialization, performed by APP with the most complete use of technological equipment and areas according to progressive labor productivity standards, taking into account the achievements of advanced technology, labor organization, ensuring high labor quality.
You can estimate the utilization of TB production capacity (ROP production capacity utilization) by the ratio of the production program to the production capacity of the ATP TB.
ATP perform various works on technical preparation of different-size rolling stock. In this regard, the products of PTB ATP are characterized by diversity and a wide range.
To calculate the production program, conditionally natural indicators (the indicated repairs, the number of impacts by types, the number of serviced cars, etc.), labor (in man-hours) and monetary indicators of the work performed are used.
Three analytical methods are used to calculate the annual production program of the ROP: calculation by cycle method, accelerated calculation method; refined calculation methodology.
With any of these methods, calculations are carried out for each model or group of cars (technologically compatible and homogeneous according to the standards used for them).
The cycle method is used in the design practice of ATP. At the same time, the cycle means the mileage or period of time from the beginning of operation of a new or overhauled car to its overhaul. The cycle method of calculation of the TB production program provides for selection and correction of the periodicity of maintenance and mileage to CG for rolling stock, calculation of the number of maintenance and CG per car (road train) per cycle, calculation of the transition coefficient from cycle to year and on its basis recalculation of the obtained values of the number of maintenance and CG per cycle per car and entire fleet per year.
With a different type of fleet, the program is calculated by groups of single-car rolling stock.
The methodology for the accelerated calculation of the annual production program is based on the first calculation of the technical readiness factors () and the use of the fleet () and the annual mileage of the entire fleet (group of homogeneous cars).
This technique is used on operating ATPs. and calculation is based on planned and annual mileage.
The methodology of the refined calculation of the annual production program of TB is used at the existing ATP to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of organizational and technical measures and evaluate the operation of the production complexes of TDC, SG, TR. This methodology differs from the previous one in that the factors are specified by introducing into the formula the calculation of separate downtime standards in maintenance and downtime standards in TR.
On the basis of the above, the method of calculating the production program according to the cycle method is used for course design.
1. The process calculation of ATP was performed, the results of which indicate the progressivity of the adopted design decisions. Actual techno-economic indicators were within the maximum allowable deviation from the corresponding reference adjusted indicators. The number of production workers per 1 million km of mileage amounted to 5 people; the number of work posts per million km of mileage amounted to 1.5 posts; the actual area of production and storage facilities per unit of rolling stock was 57 m2. Actual technical and economic indicators within the maximum allowable deviation from the corresponding reference corrected ones. The number of production workers and the number of posts is not more than 50% of the reference values. Therefore, the calculation data can be taken as the basis for the development of the ATP project.
2. Proposed are planning solutions of general plan, production building and repair section of power supply system devices. All decisions comply with regulatory documents. The layout of the production building is characterized by a clear division of the building into the main production areas for servicing rolling stock. Rooms inside the building are located depending on their purpose, industrial connections, technology of works performed in them.
3. The technical design of the diesel fuel equipment repair section was developed, which includes the planning solution of the section itself equipped with the necessary technological equipment.
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