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17 m cc distillation column

  • Added: 03.11.2014
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Description

Rectification column is a cylindrical vertical vessel of constant or variable cross-section, equipped with internal heat and mass transfer devices and auxiliary units, designed to separate liquid mixtures into fractions, each of which contains substances with a close boiling point.
Archive composition: Drawing of rectification column in compass with general view, with dimensions and positions and sections, specification and explanatory note

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Additional information

Contents

Introduction

Functional Diagram Description

Process calculation

Constructive calculation

Hydraulic calculation

Mechanical calculation

Safety precautions

List of literature

Introduction

In chemical technology, mass transfer processes characterized by the transition of one or more substances from one phase to another are widespread and important. By transferring one or more components from phase to phase, both heterogeneous and homogeneous systems (gas mixtures, liquid solutions, etc.) can be separated, and most often mass transfer processes are used to separate homogeneous systems.

One of the most common methods for separating liquid homogeneous mixtures consisting of two or more components is distillation (distillation and rectification).

Simple distillation is a process of flash evaporation of a liquid mixture and condensation of the resulting vapors. Simple distillation is only applicable to the separation of mixtures whose volatility varies considerably.

A much more complete separation of liquid mixtures into components is achieved by rectification.

Rectification is a process of multiple partial liquid evaporation and vapor condensation. The process is carried out by contacting streams of steam and liquid at different temperatures, and is usually carried out in column apparatuses.

Rectification has been known since the beginning of the 19th century as one of the most important technological processes mainly in the alcohol and oil industries. Currently, rectification is increasingly used in a wide variety of fields of chemical technology, where the isolation of components in pure form is very important (in the production of organic synthesis, isotopes, polymers, etc.).

Distillation processes are carried out periodically or continuously.

The rectification process takes place at the phase interface, so the devices must provide a developed contact surface between liquid and gas.

According to the method of forming this surface, rectifiers can be conditionally divided into the following groups: 1) surface and film; 2) nozzle; 3) bubbling (poppet); 4) spraying.

Plate distillation columns have been widely used in industry. Currently, a variety of tray designs are used. By the method of draining liquid from the tray, they can be divided: 1) trays with drain devices; 2) trays without drain devices.

Trays with drain devices include: sieve, cap, valve and ballast, plate.

In a tray without drains, gas and liquid pass through the same holes or slots. On the tray, simultaneously with the interaction of liquid and gas by bubbling, part of the liquid flows to the lower tray - the "failure" of the liquid. Therefore, plates of this type are usually called failure. These include hole, lattice, tubular and wavy plates.

The choice of the particular type of tray depends on many factors, for example, the hydraulic resistance of the tray, the range of stable operation, efficiency, liquid and gas capacity, etc.

As contact devices, nozzles are also used, which can be divided into regular and irregular ones. The irregular nozzle is used in mass exchange processes under pressure or under shallow vacuum conditions and has significant advantages over the regular production, transportation and installation technology. This type of nozzle includes: Rashig rings, Palya rings, saddle rings, etc.

Sieve trays have low resistance, high efficiency and intensity, require low metal consumption and ease of installation.

Cap trays have a fairly large area of ​ ​ work, great efficiency and ensure the ease of starting and stopping the device.

Valve trays have a large area of ​ ​ stable operation, a small splash, require a small distance between the trays, and have a high intensity and efficiency.

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