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Thesis. Sleeping building of the holiday home. Architecture.

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Graduate qualification work for the degree of bachelor of technology and technology



The sleeping building of the holiday home is designed on the basis of the design task.

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Additional information

Contents

Contents

Architectural and construction part

Architectural and planning solution of the building

Structural solution of the building

External Wall Heat Engineering Calculation

Design Calculation

Middle Column Calculation

Calculation of single foundation for column

Technology and organization of construction

Selection of a set of construction machines and accessories

Defining Labor Costs for the Leading Process

Determination of labor costs and duration of works during building erection

Object Construction Plan Design

Main TEI

List of used literature

Topic:

"Sleeping

building of a holiday home"

I. Architectural and planning solution of the building

The sleeping building of the holiday home is designed on the basis of the design task.

The building in question is three-story and has a basement. Body size in axes 41.2m x 35.9m.

The entrance to the building is designed on the north side.

On the 1st floor there is a lobby, isolated from residential premises, 7 three-room rooms (lower tier) and 5 one-room rooms.

On the 2nd floor there is a living room, the upper tier of three-room rooms and 5 one-room rooms.

In the 3rd floor there are 10 two-room rooms.

Communication between floors is carried out by internal monolithic reinforced concrete stairs.

In the basement of the building, rooms for maintenance personnel, storage of clean and dirty linen, storage rooms for equipment are designed.

The first floor of the building is raised above the ground elevation, which allows you to improve the insolation of rooms. All apartments of the sleeping building have an orientation on the east, south and west sides.

3 room rooms are designed in two levels. In the lower level there is a living room, an entrance hall, a niche kitchen and a bathroom equipped with a washbasin and a toilet. In the upper level there are two bedrooms and a bathroom equipped with a bath, washbasin, toilet and towel dryer.

2-room rooms consist of a living room, bedroom, kitchen, front and bathroom, equipped with a bath, washbasin, toilet and towel dryer.

1-room rooms, in addition to the living room have a front with a kitchen-niche and a combined bathroom equipped with a bath, washbasin, toilet and towel dryer.

Each room is equipped with a kitchen-niche with an electric stove for heating and cooking, with a washing and drying cabinet for dishes, a work table and a small refrigerator.

Bedrooms are equipped with loggia and terraces, on which you can install sun loungers for outdoor recreation.

II. Structural solution of the building

The structural diagram of the residential part of the hull is a system of brick transverse and longitudinal bearing walls with a thickness of 25, 38 and 51cm and cast-in-situ reinforced concrete slabs with a thickness of 180mm resting on them.

Outer walls represent multilayer self-supporting structure.

The structural diagram of the public part of the sleeping case is adopted in the form of a reinforced concrete frame frame. The columns have a section of 25x25cm. The floor of the public part is ribbed with slabs resting on the contour. The section of beams is 30x15cm, and the thickness of the plate is 180mm.

Foundations for walls - ribbon prefabricated, and for columns - monolithic reinforced concrete.

The lodges of the sleeping body are formed by sealing reinforced concrete cantilever beams into transverse bearing walls.

Roofs are designed flat with an internal drain. The roof to be used is made of concrete slabs, and the combined roof is made of rolled materials.

III. Thermal design of the outer wall

Heat engineering calculation is performed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP II379 * * "Construction heat engineering."

The calculation is carried out for all enclosing structures of the designed building, except for walls directly related to the auditorium of the cinema.

Determination of the humidity mode of rooms in the building during the cold season

It is installed according to the parameters of internal air:

• residential premises in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.08.0189 * "Residential buildings" item 3.3;

• vocational and educational institutions in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.08.0289 * "Public buildings and structures" paragraph 3.20;

According to them, when calculating the enclosing structures of residential buildings in areas with the coldest five-day temperature (according to SNiP 230199 "Construction climatology") above minus 31 ° С, the internal air temperature should be taken as 18 ° С, and the relative humidity is 55%. As a result, the humidity mode of the premises in the building in winter is normal (Table 1 of SNiP II379 * *).

Determination of humidity area of construction area

According to the map of humidity zones of the territory of Russia (Appendix 1,

SNiP II379 * *) we establish that the building under construction is being built in the normal humidity zone.

Determination of operating conditions of enclosing structures

The operating conditions of the external walls of the building are set according to Appendix 2 of SNiP II379 * * depending on the humidity mode of the premises and the humidity zone of the construction area. Since they are normal, the operating conditions of the enclosing structures belong to B.

4. Determination of heating period degrees (GSOS).

where tv is the design temperature of internal air, °C;

tot. lane - average temperature, ° С;

zot. lane - duration of period with average daily air temperature below or equal to 8 ° С as per SNiP 230199 "Construction climatology."

° С • day

5. Determination of the given resistance to heat transfer of the external wall of the building by energy saving.

For buildings, the construction of which began from 01.01.2000, based on the conditions of energy saving, according to Table 1b * SNiP II379 * *, by interpolation we obtain:

m2 • ° С/W.

6. Defines the heat transfer resistance of the structural wall.

Heat transfer resistance:

αв - coefficient of a thermolysis of an internal surface of enclosing structures (tab. 4 * Construction Norms and Regulations of II379 **), W / (sq.m • °C);

αв - thermolysis coefficient (for winter conditions) an external surface of enclosing structures (tab. 6 * Construction Norms and Regulations of II379 **),

W/( m2 • ° С);

RK is the thermal resistance of the enclosing structure equal to the sum of the thermal resistance of its individual layers (m2 • ° C/W):

closed air interlayer

? - design factor

thermal conductivity of material W/( m • ° С),

Annex 3 * SNiP II379 * *.

Consider several wall design options:

A) - texture protective layer:

cement-sand mortar δ1 = 0.015 m; α1 = 0.93 W/( m • ° С);

• masonry:

ordinary clay brick δ2 =?; α2 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С);

• plaster layer:

cement-lime mortar δ3 = 0.015 m; α3 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С).

We accept δ2 multiple half of brick: δ2 = 2.08m

m2 • ° С/W.

heat transfer resistance is provided.

Total wall thickness δ = 2.11 m.

B) - texture protective layer:

facing clay brick δ1 = 0.120m; α1 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С);

- foam concrete (ρ = 800kg/m3) δ2 =?; α2 = 0.18 W/( m • ° С);

- plaster layer:

cement-lime mortar δ3 = 0.015 m; α3 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С).

Thickness of block made of foam concrete δ2 = 0.3m and layer of thermal insulation made of foam polystyrene = 0.03m (α3 = 0.05 W/( m • ° C)) are accepted.

m2 • ° С/W.

heat transfer resistance is provided.

Total wall thickness δ = 0.465m.

Based on the calculations made, based on the minimum thickness of the load-bearing wall, as well as the main TEPs, we conclude that the most economical version of the construction of the load-bearing wall is:

- facing clay brick δ1 = 0.120m; α1 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С);

- expanded polystyrene (ρ = 40kg/m3) δ2 = 0.03 m; α2 = 0.05 W/( m • ° С);

- foam concrete (ρ = 800kg/m3) δ2 = 0.3 m; α2 = 0.18 W/( m • ° С);

- cement mortar δ3 = 0.015 m; α3 = 0.81 W/( m • ° С).

Total wall thickness δ = 0.465m.

I. Medium column calculation

We accept that the dimensions of the section of the column are constant on all floors and are 25 cm 25cm.

When determining the design length, columns adjacent to the floor are considered as hinged-fixed fixation (lo = Het); sealing into the foundation is considered as jamming at the level of cutting of the foundation lo = 0.7Het.

Thus, when the floor height is Nat = 2.95m and the foundation top is located 0.15m below the floor elevation, the calculated length of the elements will be:

- for basement columns: lo=0,7⋅ (2.95 + 0.15) = 2, 17 m;

- for columns of overlying floors: lo = 5.0m.

Collection of loads per 1 m2 of coating and flooring in

Notes:

* According to note 2, tab. 3 [2] load in this case is taken into account without snow load.

* * According to paragraph 3.8 [2], when calculating foundations and columns that accept loads from one floor, the full normative value of the load should be reduced depending on the cargo area, multiplied by a combination factor equal to (at):

The load on the column is collected from the cargo area l1⋅l2=4.6m⋅4.2m=19.32m2. The responsibility class of the building II is the reliability factor for the purpose of the building.

Constant load:

1) from the intermediate floor:

• from floor and slab structure:

• from beam ribs:

2 beams are located within the cargo area, so

Total

2) from coating:

• from coating structure and slab:

• from beam ribs:

2 beams are located within the cargo area, so

Total

3) from the column (to the floor):

• basement:

other floors:

Time load:

a) short-term, active

• on the floor:

• for coating:

b) long-term, active

• on the floor:

• for coating:

Forces from design loads:

• in coverage level:

• at floor level:

• in the level of foundation cutting:

Selection of section of column and reinforcement.

Concrete B15, AIII class reinforcement is used for the production of the column. Design resistance of concrete to axial compression (Table 13 [3]). Concrete working conditions factor (Table 15 [3]). Design resistance of reinforcement to compression (Table 22 [3]). Then:

design load in the basement level;

long-term part of load is equal to;

design length of the basement column lo = 2.17 m.

Elements of rectangular and square cross-section with symmetrical reinforcement from steels of classes AI, A-II, AIII, with lo≤ 20h and accepted eccentricity eo = eu norms, it is allowed to calculate by bearing capacity as centrally compressed, based on the condition:

The column reinforcement percentage must be within.

We first think of it as 1 and set the reinforcement coefficient. Then As, tot = 0.005A. So we have:

Based on the considerations of the technology of monolithic reinforced concrete, we accept the section of the column 25x25cm.

A = 25cm × 25cm = 625sm2;;

We believe that Aps < As, tot.

According to the tables, interpolating, we find ¼ b = 0.9047 ¼ sb = 0.91102.

The coefficient,, is determined by the formula:

Then we define As, tot:

The obtained value shows that the section of the column is overestimated and there is no need to install valves, however, for design reasons, we accept:

We accept the welded frame. Longitudinal rods are combined into a spatial frame with the help of transverse clamps, which are installed (with welded frames), with a pitch of no more than 20d, but at least in 50 cm. Diameter of transverse rods in welded frames shall meet welding conditions. In our case, the diameter of the transverse rods is taken equal to 6 mm, the pitch of the clamps is taken S=20d=20⋅1,2sm=24sm. We take S = 20 cm.

We determine the length of the foundation reinforcement outlet.

The reinforcement extension at connection of the basement frame with the 1st floor frame is determined by formula 186 [3]:

, but not less than,

where values are taken as per Table 37 [3]. Then

The column of the overlying floor is calculated similarly. We use the same reinforcement scheme for it as for the basement column.

II. Calculation of a separate foundation for the column

The column foundation is calculated as centrally loaded.

The soil of the base is clay. Design soil resistance is taken equal to. Concrete B15, reinforcement of class AII is used to manufacture the foundation. (tab. 13 [3]). Concrete working conditions factor (Table 15 [3]). (tab. 22 [3]). Weight of the foundation concrete volume unit, as well as the preparation concrete volume for the basement floors and soil on the foundation cuttings.

Section of the column is 25x25cm.

Design force. Average value of load safety factor. Then the normative effort:

The height of the foundation is accepted, and the reduced depth of the foundation in the room with the basement is determined by the formula:

- thickness of soil layer between foundation base and bottom

floor structures, m;

- thickness of floor structure, m;

- volume weight of the floor structure in the basement,;

- volume weight of soil,.

We accept that the relation = >.

Defines the dimensions of the foundation floor.

We find the required area of the foundation base preliminary without corrections for its width and laying according to the formula:

A - required area of foundation base, m;

- normative force transferred to the foundation, kN;

- design soil resistance,;

- weight of concrete volume unit of foundation, as well as concrete volume

preparation for the floors of the basement and soil on the cuttings

foundation,;

- depth of foundation laying, m.

Then the size of the side of the square sole:

We accept the dimensions of the sole: 1.2m1.2m (multiples of 0.3m).

Foundation bottom pressure from design load:

Calculation of the foundation for pressing.

Given: cross-sectional dimensions of the column 25 × 25 cm;

dimensions of foundation foot: 1.2m1.2m;

pressure on the foundation bottom:.

It is required to determine the dimensions of the reinforced concrete structure of the foundation and the amount of reinforcement of the slab part of the foundation.

When calculating forcing, the minimum height of the plate part H is determined and the number and size of its stages are assigned or the bearing capacity of the plate part is checked at its given configuration.

We determine the working height of the foundation based on the condition that it is pushed by the column along the pyramid surface under the action of the design load, using the approximate formula:

- dimensions of column section, m.

We take the protective layer. Then the height of the foundation. Finally, the height of the foundation is taken equal. The number of steps is 1. Then.

Consider the calculated sections: 2-2 on the face of the upper stage; 1-1 along the lower boundary of the squeeze pyramid.

We check compliance of the stage working height with the condition of strength by transverse force without transverse reinforcement in the inclined section starting in section 1-1. By 1m width of this section the transverse force

Minimum transverse force perceived by concrete (as per para 3.31 *

- coefficient taken equal to for heavy concrete

- factor that takes into account the influence of compressed shelves in T-shelves

and I-sections;

is a factor that takes into account the influence of longitudinal forces.

Since <, the strength condition is satisfied.

We check the strength of the foundation for pressing on the surface of the pyramid, limited by planes drawn at an angle to the side faces of the column according to the formula:

F - pushing force, kN;

- area of the pyramid base at square in

column and foundation plan, m;

- coefficient equal to 1 for heavy concrete;

um is the arithmetic mean of the perimeters of the upper and

bottom bases of the pyramid, m;

ho - working section height, m;

Rbt - design strength of concrete for axial tension.

We determine the value of the pushing force:

Since <, the anti-push is satisfied.

Reinforcement of foundation.

We define bending moments in sections corresponding to the location of the foundation ledges, as for the cantilever with a pinched end:

Calculate the required amount of working reinforcement in the foundation sections in one direction:

.

We accept welded mesh from reinforcement of diameter 8mm class AII with cells 100mm × 100mm, in one direction.

Reinforcement percentage

which is more.

I. Selection of a set of construction machines, mechanisms and devices.

The leading process during the construction of the building is the construction of a monolithic reinforced concrete frame and floors. To supply the concrete mixture, use a concrete pump on the chassis of the automobile type ABN60.

Technical characteristics of ABN-60 aircraft concrete pump:

Select crane.

To supply bricks in pallets to the construction horizon and install foundation and wall blocks of the basement, we use a crane on an automobile type chassis.

As a load-gripping device for feeding bricks in pallets to the workplace, a grab-type case with the following characteristics is used:

- overall dimensions, mm:

• length 1320

• width 900

• height (with sling) 2400

- weight, t: 0.32.

POM - 770ґ1030 - 0.9 trays GOST 1834380 (weighing 30 kg) are used.

Four-branch sling 4072 is used as a load-gripping device for mounting plates and blocks:

- lifting capacity, t 3;

- weight, t 0.03;

- design height, m 1.2.

Determination of crane operating parameters.

, where

b is the length of the case pick-up (m),

h - height from crane boom heel,

h = ho hsh = hd + hzah - hsh = 10.03 + 2.40 - 1.6 = 10, 83m

Then = >

Required boom length:

Required boom run for brick supply:

, where

c - distance from axis of hinge of boom heel to axis of crane rotation.

Required boom span during installation of foundation slabs:

(defined by basement plan).

Required height of crane hook lifting at supply of pallets with brick to bricklayer's place of work:

he - height (thickness) of the element;

hz is a stock on height (0.5 m);

hc - height of slings;

then the required lifting height of the crane hook:

When selecting a crane, it is also necessary to take into account the weight of the mounted (supplied) element, taking into account the gripping device, which is:

According to the boom length and required crane lifting capacity at the specified boom flight (foundation slabs are installed at maximum hook flight), we establish that the crane with telescopic boom on the automotive chassis meets these conditions:

KS-5473.

Crane characteristics.

II. Determination of labour costs for the leading process.

III. Determination of labor costs, machine time and duration of work during construction of the building.

Notes:

1. Work is carried out in 2 shifts.

2. Process waiting for concrete hardening - 6 days.

3. Technological expectation when gaining the necessary strength with brickwork - 2 days.

IV. Design of the object construction plan.

Calculation of areas of temporary buildings.

The largest number of employees per shift.

1) passing - 4

2) dressing room - 1

3) shower - 0.6

4) wash - 0.2

5) drying - 0.2

6) toilet - 0.09

7) food and recreation facilities - 0.9

85% workers = > 18chel

12% ITR = > 2chel

3% MOS = > 1chel

8) pro-slave - 24

We accept the following areas of temporary buildings:

• pass-through:

• dressing room = >

• shower = >

• washroom = > domestic premises

• drying = > for 18 people

• toilet = >

• Food and recreation facilities:

• Pro-slave:

Calculation of temporary water supply.

The total water consumption for the construction period is determined by the formula:

, where

1) - water consumption for economic needs;

- water consumption for all economic needs, except shower reception;

- water consumption rate per 1 person;

- water consumption unevenness coefficient;

- water consumption for shower reception;

- water consumption rate for reception of 1 shower by 1 person;

- coefficient of simultaneous shower reception;

t = 45 min - average shower time;

2) - water consumption for production needs;

- Ratio for unaccounted requirements;

- water consumption unevenness coefficient;

- water consumption per shift with the highest water consumption, which includes:

- filling of valve 400l;

- filling of 2 machines;

- watering of brickwork

, where n is the number of bricks

N - number of masonry days

- concrete watering

, where n is the volume of concrete

N - number of days

- miscellaneous unaccounted expenses 500 l

3) - water consumption for fire needs.

So,

We define the pipe diameter for temporary running water:

- speed of water movement in the pipe.

We accept pipe diameter D = 100mm.

Calculation of temporary power supply.

The calculation of loads by the installed power of electric receivers and demand coefficient with differentiation by types of consumers is determined by the formula:

, where

- coefficient taking into account network losses,

;

- power of power consumers, kW;

- power for technological needs, kW;

- group-specific demand factors

consumers;

- internal lighting power, kW;

- outdoor lighting power, kW;

- power coefficients.

1. Power consumption capacity and for technological needs.

• depth vibrators (2 pcs.)

Electric motor power - 1.2kW.

• surface vibrators (4 pcs.)

Electric motor power - 1.1kW.

• welding machines (2 pcs.)

Power - 6kW.

• concrete mixer (1 pc.)

Electric motor power - 12kW.

So,.

2. Lighting.

q - specific power,;

S - illuminated area,.

a) outdoor lighting

• construction areas in the area of work:

• Main passageways and passageways:

• security lighting:

• emergency lighting:

b) internal lighting

• lighting of warehouses:

• Lighting in the finishing area:

• Public premises:

We accept transformer substation of SKTP10010/6/0.4 of the closed design with overall dimensions.

V. Major TEPs.

1. Construction volume: 11820 cubic meters.

2. Living area: 896 sq.m.

Useful area: 3032 sq.m.

3. K = 3.90

List of used literature

1. SNiP II379 * Construction Heat Engineering/Gosstroy of Russia. - M.: STATE UNITARY ENTERPRISE CPI, 1995.

2. SNiP 2.01.0785 * Loads and impacts/Gosstroy of Russia. - M.: STATE UNITARY ENTERPRISE CPI, 2001.

3. SNiP 2.03.0184 * Concrete and reinforced concrete structures/Gosstroy of Russia. - M.: PMT CPI, 2000.

4. SNiP 2.08.0289 * Public buildings and structures/Gosstroy of Russia. - M.: PMT CPI, 2000.

5. ENiR Collection E3. Stone works.

6. ENiR. Collection E4. Installation of prefabricated and construction of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structures. Out. 1. Buildings and industrial structures/Gosstroy of the USSR. - M.: Stroyizdat, 1987.

7. ENiR Collection E6. Carpentry and carpentry.

8. ENiR Collection E7. Roofing works.

9. ENiR Collection E8. Finishing coatings of building structures. Out. 1 Finishing works.

10. ENiR Collection E11. Insulation works.

11. ENiR Collection E19. Floor arrangement.

12. Standard material consumption indicators. Collection 08. Brick and block structures.

13. Kutukov V.N. Reconstruction of buildings. M., Higher School, 1981.

14. Tupolev M.S., Shkinev A.N., PopovA.A. Civil and industrial buildings. Ch.1.Grazhdan buildings. M.,1962.

15. Baykov V.N., Sigalov E.E. Reinforced concrete structures. General course. M., Stroyizdat, 1991.

16. Berlinov M.V. Foundations and foundations. M., Higher School, 1999.

17. Organization of construction production. Ed. Associations of construction universities, M., 1999.

18. Sokolov G.K. Construction cranes, equipment and accessories. Tutorial. MGSU, M., 1995.

19. Varenik E.I., Kapitanov Yu.D. and others. Technology of construction production. Ed. Higher School, M., 1973.

20. Khamzin S.K., Karasev A.K. Technology of construction production. Course and degree design. Ed. Higher School, M., 1989.

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