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Technical map for the installation of the frame building in St. Petersburg

  • Added: 17.08.2012
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Process charts are one of the main elements of the PPR, containing a set of instructions on rational technology and organization of construction production. The routing is developed with the aim of establishing the methods and methods of individual types of work, their sequence and duration, determining the quantity of working, material and technical resources required for their existence. This process sheet has been developed for earthworks.

The Job Instruction is developed in accordance with SNiP 3.03.0187 * "Bearing and enclosing structures."

When developing the Job Instruction, the following principles shall be the basis of the design:

• Progressive and advanced methods of the construction process;

• integrated mechanization using high-performance machines and mechanisms;

• execution of construction process by flow methods;

• scientific organization of labor;

• basis of selection of method of works execution by technical and economic calculations, comparison with best practices of construction;

• Compliance with health and safety regulations when designing the process sequence.

Scope of application of the Job Instruction: it is intended for organization of labor of workers during earthworks, it is designed for work in summer conditions, it can also be used as a standard for similar buildings.

The routing includes a diagram of the building plan, with indication of the process sequence of individual operations, the place of storage of materials, sections with indication of the work flow chart, mechanisms .

Select production method.

The process plan was developed for the construction of a 2-story building with continuous columns. Installation of building structures is carried out from the warehouse. All preparatory operations and processes are performed directly at the construction site. For the erection of the building, an element-by-element installation method was used.

Installation of elements is performed by method on the crane.

The entire set of installation works is divided into construction flows:

- installation of foundations

- installation of columns

- installation of plates and girders

- installation of wall panels

The Job Instruction shows 2 construction streams:

1. Installation of columns.

2. Installation of girders and floor slabs.

Self-propelled rifle crane is used as lifting mechanism.

During installation of columns, girders and slabs, the crane moves around the perimeter of the building. Parking along letter axes.

The building is not divided into grabs due to the small size of the building.

Instructions for performance of works.

SNiP 3.03.0187 * "Bearing and enclosing structures."

Installation of precast reinforced concrete and concrete structures general instructions

1) Pre-warehousing of structures in acquired warehouses is allowed only with appropriate justification. The purchased warehouse shall be located in the crane area.

2) Installation of structures of each overlying floor (tier) of the multi-storey building should be carried out after the design fixation of all installation elements and reaching with concrete (mortar) of the ground joints of the load-bearing structures of the strength specified in the PPM.

3) In cases where the strength and stability of structures during assembly are ensured by welding of mounting joints, it is allowed, if specified in the design, to mount the structures of several floors (tiers) of buildings without plugging joints. At the same time, the design should provide the necessary instructions on the procedure for erection of structures, welding of joints and grouting of joints.

4) In cases where permanent connections do not ensure the stability of structures during their assembly, temporary mounting connections must be used. The design and number of connections, as well as the procedure for their installation and removal, must be specified in the PPM.

5) Grades of solutions used in the installation of structures for the bedding device shall be specified in the design. The mobility of the solution shall be 5-7 cm in the immersion depth of the standard cone, except as specifically specified in the design.

6) The use of a solution, the setting process of which has already begun, as well as the restoration of its plasticity by adding water, is not allowed.

7) Limit deviations from alignment of reference points during installation of prefabricated elements, as well as deviations of completed installation structures from the design position shall not exceed the values given in Table 12 of SNiP 3.03.01-87

Installation of columns

1) The design position of the columns and frames should be adjusted in two mutually perpendicular directions.

2) The bottom of the columns should be aligned with the hairlines indicating their geometric axes in the lower section, with the hairlines of the laying axes or geometric axes of the lower columns.

The method of supporting the columns on the bottom of the cup should provide fixing of the bottom of the column from horizontal movement for a period until the unit is ground.

3) The top of the columns of multi-storey buildings should be adjusted by aligning the geometric axes of the columns in the upper section with the hairlines of the layout axes, and the columns of single-storey buildings - by aligning the geometric axes of the columns in the upper section with the geometric axes in the lower section.

Alignment of the bottom of the frames in longitudinal and transverse directions should be carried out by aligning the hairlines of geometric axes with the hairlines of the laying axes or the axes of the posts in the upper section of the lower frame.

Installation of girders, slabs and coatings

1) The elements shall be laid in the direction of the covered span in compliance with the design dimensions of the depth of their support on the supporting structures or gaps between the mating elements.

2) Installation of elements in the transverse direction of the covered span should be performed:

girders and inter-column (connecting) plates - combining hairlines of longitudinal axes of installed elements with hairlines of axes of columns on supports;

crane beams - aligning the hairlines fixing the geometric axes of the upper belts of the beams with the layout axis;

adjustment and rafter beams when resting on columns - combining hairlines fixing geometric axes of lower belts of beams with hairlines of axes of columns in upper section of rafter beams resting on walls - combining hairlines fixing geometric axes of lower belts of beams with hairlines of laying axes on supports.

In all cases, rafters shall be installed in compliance with one-sided directionality of deviations from rectilinearity of their upper belts:

floor slabs - by markings determining their design position on supports and performed after installation in the design position of the structures on which they rest (beams, girders, etc.);

slabs of coatings to rafter beams - symmetrically relative to centers of truss units (embedded articles) along their upper belts.

3) Girders, intercolone (tie) plates, rafters, coating plates on beams are laid dry on support surfaces of bearing structures.

4) Slabs shall be laid on a solution layer not exceeding 20 mm in thickness, aligning surfaces of adjacent slabs along the seam on the ceiling side.

5) The use of linings not provided for in the draft is not allowed to equalize the position of the stacked elements by elevations without coordination with the design organization.

Installation procedure of columns:

1. Apply axial hairlines. The M3 installer inspects the column, checking its suitability for installation. Then, measuring 50 cm from the bottom of the column, it applies axial hairlines to its two adjacent planes.

2. Slinging and supply of the column to the installation site. The M3 installer accepts the gripper supplied by the crane driver and slings the column, passing the steel pin through the holes in the column head and gripper cheeks. Making sure that the sling is reliable, the installer moves to a safe distance. At his command, the crane driver smoothly lifts the column and supplies it to the installation site.

3. Installation of the column in the foundation shell. Installers M1 and M2 receive the column at a distance of 30 cm from the top of the foundation. At the command of the installer M2, the crane driver lowers the column into the foundation sleeve, and the installers combine the column hairlines with axial hairlines on the foundation sleeve.

4. Reconciliation and temporary attachment of the column. Installers M1 and M2 carefully center the column in the direction of two mutually intersecting planes. If the hairlines on the faces of the column and on the foundation do not match, the installers with crowns draw the bottom of the column to the design position. Then, being guided by signals of the surveyor verifying a column by means of two theodolites, the assembler M1signaliziruyet to the crane operator about column top shift in any given party to design situation. After that, the installers plug steel wedges into the gap between the lower part of the column and the foundation walls.

5. Upset the column. Convinced of the reliability of temporary attachment of the column, the M1 installer instructs the crane driver to relieve the tension of the hook rope. Installer M2 releases the grip by using a cord to pull the pin out of the grip and the column.

6. Cleaning the bottom of the cup and laying the leveling layer for the next column. Installer M1 knocks concrete strains from the bottom of the glass with a crowbar, and installer M2 cleans the glass from soil and crushed stone with a brush, after which the bottom of the glass is wetted with a brush. The M3 installer with a shovel places a concrete mixture on the bottom of the cup, flattens it by the elevations taken out on the inner walls of the cup, and then smoothes the surface with a kelm.

Installation procedure of girders:

1,2. Preparation of the crossbar for installation; Slinging and delivery of crossbar to the place of laying. The M3 installer examines the girder, checks the strength of the mounting loops with a scrap, knocks down concrete strakes from embedded parts with a hammer-gear and uses a meter to apply axial hairlines to both ends of the girder.

The M3 installer receives the sling fed by the crane driver, clinging its hooks to the mounting loops of the crossbar and instructs the crane driver to raise and move the crossbar to the place of placement.

3,4. Preparation of crossbar laying place; laying of girder. Installers M1 and M2, standing on the stairs, with hammers-teeth, clean the support part of the column consoles from concrete strains. Then, using a meter and a griffin, they apply axial hairlines to the side faces of the columns. After that, they take the girder at a distance of 30 cm from the support cantilevers of the columns and orient it above the laying place. According to the signal of the installer M1, the crane driver slowly lowers the crossbar, and the installers direct it so that the hairlines on the ends of the crossbar and the columns coincide.

5. Installation of conductors on columns. The installers M1 and M2, being on the ladder site, are installed on both columns along the conductor for temporary attachment of the crossbar, after which, when the sling is stretched, the crossbar is fixed with tightening screws of the conductors.

6. Upset of the crossbar. Convinced of the reliability of temporary attachment of the crossbar by conductors, the M1 installer instructs the crane driver to relieve the tension of the sling, after which, together with the M2 installer, the crossbar disassembles.

7. Richtovka rigel. Installers M1 and M2, operating with two thrust screws of conductors, tighten the girder to the design position on axial hazards on the columns and girder.

Procedure for installation of coating plates:

1. Clears the panel and checks its dimensions. The M3 installer inspects the panel, checks the presence of embedded parts and the condition of the mounting loops. With light blows of a hammer-tooth, he cleans the panel of concrete, dirt and ice.

2. Preparation of the solution bed. The installer M2 with the help of a hammer-tooth cleans the place where the panel is laid, and the installer M1 with a shovel picks up solution from the box and arranges a solution bed on the shelves of the girders, leveling the solution with kelma.

3. Slinging and feeding of the panel to the place of laying. The M3 installer accepts the sling supplied by the crane driver, alternately clings its hooks to the panel mounting loops and instructs the crane driver to tighten the sling branches. Convinced of the reliability of the sling, the M3 installer departs to a safe distance, and the crane driver, on its signal, lifts and moves the panel to the place of laying.

4. Panel stacking. The installers M1 and M2, standing on the previously laid panel, receive the panel supplied by the crane driver at a distance of 30 cm from the floor and orient it above the laying place. The crane driver, on the signal of M1 installer, lowers the panel to the solution bed. The branches of the sling remain strained.

5.6 Reconciliation and disassembly of the panel. The level M1 and M2 installers check that the panel is correctly placed in height, eliminating the observed deviations by changing the thickness of the solution bed. When the panel is offset in the plan, the installers draw it with crowns. Then, at the command of the M1 installer, the crane driver eases the tension of the sling branches, and the installers disassemble the panel.

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