Design of automobile plant for 105 GAZ-3307 vehicles
- Added: 09.07.2014
- Size: 1 MB
- Downloads: 1
ГАЗ-3307, 105 авто (можно)
ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННЫЙ КОРПУС .bak
ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННЫЙ КОРПУС .cdw
1. PROCESS CALCULATION
1.1 INITIAL DATA COMPILATION
1.2 CALCULATION OF MACHINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROGRAM
1.2.1. Adjustment of standards
1.2.2. Calculation of the number of technical impacts per rolling stock operation cycle
1.2.3. Determination of the amount of maintenance per car fleet per year
1.2.4. Determination of the program of diagnostic impacts on the entire fleet for the year
1.2.5. Definition of daily maintenance program and car diagnostics
1.3 CALCULATION OF LABOUR INTENSITY OF TECHNICAL IMPACTS
1.3.1 Adjustment of labour intensity standards
1.3.2 Annual scope of work for maintenance and maintenance
1.3.3 Distribution of Maintenance and Maintenance Scope by Production Areas
1.4 CALCULATION OF ANNUAL SCOPE OF ANCILLARY WORKS
1.5 FORMATION OF PRODUCTION STRUCTURE OF TECHNICAL SERVICE OF ATP
1.6 Substantiation of operation mode and accepted forms of production organization ____
1.7 CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL
1.8 CALCULATION OF LINES AND POSTS IN PRODUCTION ZONES AND COMPARTMENTS (AREAS)
1.8.1. Calculation of zones EO, TO-1, TO-2 and diagnostics
1.8.2. Calculation of the number of maintenance posts
1.8.3. Calculation of maintenance and repair waiting posts
1.8.4. Selection of process equipment and accessories for production areas
1.9 CALCULATION OF AREAS OF PRODUCTION ZONES AND COMPARTMENTS (PLOTS)
1.10 CALCULATION OF STORED STOCK AND STORAGE AREAS
1.10.1. Lubricant Warehouse
1.10.2. Rubber warehouse
1.10.3. Storage of spare parts, units and materials
1.10.4. Calculation of car storage area (parking area)
2. PRODUCTION BUILDING DESIGN
2.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PLANNING SOLUTION OF THE PRODUCTION BUILDING
2.2 PRODUCTION BUILDING DESIGN
3. ORGANIZATION AND TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION AREA, SEPARATION (SITE)
3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRICAL SECTION
3.2 ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF THE PROCESS
3.3 Process diagram at the design site
3.3 CALCULATION OF AREA OCCUPIED BY ELECTRICAL SECTION
LIST OF LITERATURE USED ----
Road transport, unlike other types of vehicles, is the most mass and convenient for transporting goods and passengers over relatively short distances. It has more maneuverability, good adaptability and cross-country ability in various climatic and biographical conditions.
Road transport plays an important role in the country's transport system. The work of road transport ensures the normal functioning of enterprises. This mode of transport accounts for over 80% of all transported goods, it is road transportation that is the beginning and completion of any transportation (rail, sea, air). Every day, buses and cars transport tens of millions of people.
Improving the reliability of the car and reducing the costs of their maintenance are one of the most important tasks of the national economy. In order to solve this problem, vehicle manufacturers have established maintenance and repair standards taking into account operation.
Failure-free operation of the car largely depends on timely and high-quality maintenance.
Maintenance is designed to support cars in working condition in a decent appearance. To reduce heavy wear of parts, as well as to detect failures and faults in order to eliminate them in a timely manner.
Technological design synthesizes a large and diverse range of organizational, technological and economic issues. Studying these issues helps the young mechanical engineer of road transport to quickly present and master almost all the issues that he must solve in his practical activities at ATP.
The quality of reconstruction, expansion, technical re-equipment and new construction is largely determined by the quality of the relevant projects, which should meet all modern requirements for capital construction. The main requirement is to ensure a high technical level and high economic efficiency of the designed enterprises, buildings and structures by maximizing the use of the latest advances in science and technology, that new or reconstructed ATPs in terms of time of their commissioning are technically advanced and have high performance and working conditions, level of mechanization, in terms of cost and quality of production, in terms of efficiency of capital investments.
The task of increasing the efficiency of capital investments and reducing the cost of construction is part of the problem of rational organization of road transport and covers a wide range of operational, technological and construction issues.
The solution to this problem is primarily ensured by high-quality enterprise design, which largely determines the rational use of fixed assets and high efficiency of capital investments.
The main prerequisites for high-quality design are:
• proper justification of the purpose, capacity and location of the enterprise, as well as its compliance with the progressive forms of organization and operation of road transport;
• production cooperation with other enterprises, centralization of maintenance and maintenance of rolling stock;
• selection of land plot taking into account co-operation of external engineering networks;
• unification of space-planning solutions of the building using the most economical prefabricated structures, standard parts of industrial manufacture and modern building materials.
1.5. Formation of production structure of technical service of ATP.
The ATP maintenance production structure is formed in the process of calculation of work quantities and number of workers and provides for:
- separation or combination of maintenance and diagnostics. During the separation, the corresponding share of maintenance labor intensity and the number of performers in the diagnostic area is allocated;
- combination of maintenance and related repairs. In this case, up to 20% of the volume of installation and adjustment works, the TR is transferred to the TO-2 team with a corresponding increase in the number of workers;
- handover of some maintenance works/in case of small programs/repair areas. If it is impossible to have in the team TO-1 or TO-2 workers fully loaded with maintenance of electrical equipment, fuel equipment and others, the scope of these works is transferred to the corresponding sections and departments;
- inclusion of self-service functions of the enterprise in the tasks of repair sections and branches. If the scope of work is small and it is impossible to have a department of the chief mechanic/fully loaded specialized workers, the scope of such work/mechanical, welding, etc ./can be transferred to the corresponding areas or departments of the main production with an increase in the number of workers and areas;
- integration of specialized areas into one production unit at low labour intensity. At the same time, the number of workers and areas are determined by the total volumes of work;
- distribution of the scope of work and number of workers according to production changes is carried out taking into account the mode of rolling stock operation and distribution of repair request flows;
- in two-shift operation, it is preferable to perform TO-2 in the first shift, and TO-1 in the second shift.
1.6. Justification of operating mode and accepted forms of organization
The operation mode of maintenance and maintenance production (number of shifts, their duration and distribution by changes in the volumes of each type of work) largely determines the parameters of the designed production and technical base (the number of posts and workplaces, the area of zones and compartments, the necessary technological equipment).
The more shifts and the more evenly distributed the volumes of maintenance and maintenance work, the less production capacity and capital investments are required for the construction of ATP.
The mode of operation and the forms of organization of production adopted depend on the following main factors:
- operation mode of rolling stock on the line (number of working days per year, shift of operation of machines, duration of operation on the line);
- the share of rolling stock not returning to the enterprise daily (long-distance transportation, work at other enterprises);
- daily maintenance requirements (washing, cleaning, etc.), depending on the types of transportation and climatic conditions;
- Availability of production facilities and restrictions on their development;
- Opportunities to attract workers to work in the evening and at night.
The longer the daily operating time of the rolling stock, the less time remains for the technical service of the ATP to perform the RO, TO and TR. no loss of linear time. It is therefore recommended that the following activities be organized:
EO, - 1 - in interlinear time (during a sediment of the rolling stock);
TO-2 - in the first shift or with a minimum target day space of cars;
D-1 and D-2 - in the first or first and second shifts;
TP - the maximum number of requests (elimination of minor malfunctions) between the return and departure of cars on the line with the organization for this purpose of an additional (second and third) change of production after the end of the cars. Sections of electrical, fuel equipment and others performing works directly on the car must work in all organized shifts of current repair;
Work on the restoration of the revolving fund of units, devices and parts - in the first shift of production. To reduce the required number of jobs, a second shift can be organized;
Self-service work - in all production shifts.
The justification of the forms of organization of production is the defining point for the subsequent stages of technological calculation and overall design, such as:
- calculation of the number of workers;
- calculation of zones and branches;
- area calculation;
- development of planning solutions;
- selection of production technology and management structures.
The organization forms are based on the following tasks:
- selection of production method on production lines or universal posts (specializing in performing a certain type of technical impact - RO, TO1, TO-2);
- selection of combined or separate production of maintenance and diagnostics.
We make the selection in accordance with the available recommendations, but taking into account the real conditions of the particular enterprise. The main criterion is daily programs for a technologically compatible group of rolling stock.
2. production building design
2.1 Justification of the planning solution of the production building
The space-planning solution of the building means the placement of production units in it in accordance with their functional purpose, technological, construction, fire, sanitary and hygienic and other requirements.
The basis for the development of the layout of ATP buildings is the functional diagram and schedule of the production process, according to which the independent and, if necessary, sequential passage of the individual maintenance and maintenance stages by the car should be ensured.
The planning solution of the main production building of ATP must comply with the diagram of the maintenance and maintenance processes of cars, the results of technological calculation and the general requirements for the unification of building structures.
With the modern industrial development of construction, buildings are mounted from unified, mainly reinforced concrete, structural elements of factory manufacture (columns, trusses, beams, etc.) on the basis of a unified column grid.
For single-story buildings of large enterprises, a grid of columns measuring 12x12, 12x18, 12x24, 12x30, 12x36 m is common, for buildings of small enterprises it is allowed - 6x9, 6x12, 6x15 m (the first number is the pitch of the columns, the second is the span). In multi-storey buildings, a grid of columns measuring 6x6, 6x9, 6x12 and 9x12 m was used, and in the upper floors 6x18 and 12x18 m are allowed. The building should have, if possible, the same type of column grid. However, the same type of column grid in the building of the main production building of the ATP can lead to a number of technological inconveniences, irrational use of production areas, and complicated planning.
In maintenance and maintenance areas and car storage rooms, especially large ones, a large column grid is needed for the convenience of maneuvering them. For production areas and technical rooms, a small-sized column grid is required, since with a large grid these rooms are narrow and long, which makes it difficult to arrange equipment and impairs the natural lighting of the rooms. In addition, the required height of these rooms is significantly less than the premises for maintenance and maintenance, where suspended equipment is used. With the same type of large grid of columns, the volume of the building is irrationally used.
Therefore, it is allowed to design buildings with spans of different width and in mutually perpendicular directions, with different steps of columns (6 and 12 m) in extreme rows and with height differences according to technological requirements and with the corresponding feasibility study.
The height of the premises (the distance from the floor to the bottom of the structures of the coating, flooring or suspended equipment) is taken based on the requirements of the technological process, the placement of transportation equipment and the unification of building structures of buildings. When determining the height of the premises for the maintenance and maintenance posts of cars, it is taken into account that the smallest distance from the top of the car located on the lift, or from the top of the raised body of the car axle, standing on the floor, to the bottom of the roof or floor structures or to the bottom of the protruding parts of the lifting equipment should be at least 0.2 m.
Height of rooms for maintenance and maintenance posts depending on the type of rolling stock, suspended equipment and arrangement of posts is taken in accordance with ONTP0191.
The design scheme of the building is selected taking into account the calculated areas of the premises, the overall dimensions of the maintenance and maintenance zones and the workshops (sections) in which the cars are to come. Therefore, in order to determine the overall dimensions, these units are developed in an aggregate manner taking into account the standard column grid.
The structural layout, column grid and overall dimensions of the building should be chosen taking into account the unification of building structures, the overall dimensions of the premises into which cars come, and the required areas of production and storage premises. At the same time, the width of the production premises should be such that it is possible to place the equipment at least at one of the walls with observance of the regulated distances between the equipment, equipment and elements of the building, as well as the width of the passages and driveways, and there should be no columns within the driveways. Preferably, the ratio of the length and width of buildings having a rectangular plan shape is within 1.5: 2.0.
In the case of a parallel-zone layout of the building, in which the entry into and movement into the maintenance and TR zones are carried out in parallel flows, the width of the production building and, respectively, the column grid and the direction of spans (across or along the length of the building) are selected based on the length of the maintenance flow lines, so that at the beginning and at the end of the flow lines there are no excess areas. At the beginning of the flow lines, support posts are provided to ensure the rhythmic operation of the flow lines. In winter, they are used to heat cars before they enter the flow lines. The width of the driveways in the TC and TR areas shall be minimum but sufficient for all manoeuvring operations.
A number of requirements must be taken into account when determining the overall dimensions of production units and their arrangement.
Cleaning, washing and drying stations for cars of all categories shall be located in a room isolated from other production units.
You can place the EO area in a separate building.
It is recommended to perform post operations TO1, TO-2, general diagnostics, as well as assembly and adjustment operations of TR in a separate room isolated from other production departments.
Dead-end posts TO-1 and TO-2 are located in the room of TR posts. TO-1 or TO-2 flow lines (or TO-1 and TO-2 together) are organized in a separate room. They are not separated from the TP zone by a partition if the latter is adjacent.
Flow lines along their entire working length shall be equipped with inspection ditches. The conveyor must serve both work stations and support posts of maintenance lines.
When sizing the flow line space, it should be borne in mind that a conveyor drive and tensioning station shall be provided outside the work area of the flow line for the transport of vehicles, and tunnels shall be provided at the beginning and end of the flow line (also outside its work area) for the entry and exit of inspection channels.
The height of the tunnel (distance from the floor to the bottom of the floor structures), as well as the distance to the load-bearing structures above the pits (trenches) at the places of passage of people should be at least 2 m, the width of the tunnel is 1 m. Stairs are provided for entering the tunnel from the side of inspection ditches and leaving it in the maintenance zone.
When designing posts on the in-line line and dead-end TC and TR posts, the normalized distances between cars, as well as between cars and building structures are taken into account.
When choosing a method of placing dead-end posts in the maintenance and maintenance zone, it should be borne in mind that when they are placed at a rectangular angle, the width of the passage required by the conditions for installing cars on the posts decreases, but the area of the post increases taking into account the width of the passage. The oblique positioning of the posts is generally advantageous in the presence of any restriction on the width of the zone, for example in the reconstruction of the zone for larger rolling stock.
For the convenience of maneuvering road trains and articulated buses, maintenance and maintenance posts must be designed with travel cards.
In order to provide access to the units, assemblies and parts located at the bottom of the rolling stock, during the maintenance and maintenance work, mainly floor mechanized devices should be used - hydraulic and electric lifts, mobile racks, tilters, etc. The installation of inspection ditches is allowed in some cases in accordance with the requirements of the technological process.
When designing inspection channels, observe the following requirements. Working length of inspection ditch shall be not less than overall length of rolling stock. Width of inspection ditch is selected based on track width of rolling stock taking into account arrangement of external or internal flanges.
A splitter shall be provided at the entrance of the inspection ditch to guide the wheels 0.150.2 m high.
Depth of inspection ditch shall provide free access to units, units and parts located at the bottom of rolling stock. It is accepted equal to 1.31.5 m for cars and buses of a particularly small class, 1.11.2 m for trucks and buses and 0.50.7 m for off-road dump trucks.
When two or more inspection ditches are located in parallel, dead-end inspection ditches are usually connected to each other by open trenches, and travel ditches by tunnels. The width of the open trenches is taken to be 1.2 m if they are intended only for people to pass, and 2.02.2 m when placing process equipment in them. Height from the floor to the bottom of the tunnel floor shall be not less than 2 m, width not less than 1 m.
Ladders not less than 0.7 m wide shall be provided for entry into inspection ditches. The number of ladders for dead end inspection ditches not joined by trenches shall be one for each inspection ditch; for dead end inspection ditches joined by trenches - at least one for three ditches; for travel inspection ditches connected by tunnels - at least one for four ditches; for travel inspection ditches of flow lines - for each flow line at least two stairs located on opposite sides. Distance between ducts exits on flow lines shall not exceed 25 m.
It is not allowed to place exits from ditches, trenches and tunnels under cars and on the tracks of movement and maneuvering of rolling stock. Exits, as well as open trenches, shall be enclosed by railings with a height of 0.9 m.
Stops for car wheels shall be provided on dead end inspection ditches.
To ensure the lifting of rolling stock on inspection ditches, it is necessary to provide mobile or stationary lifts.
Inspection ditches shall be equipped with plenum ventilation, shall have recesses for arrangement of electric lamps and socket for actuation of 12V portable lamps.
The amount of supply and exhaust air per 1 m3 of inspection ditches, pits and tunnels should be taken on the basis of ten times air exchange.
The width of the driveways in the areas with dead ends TO and TR posts is determined by a graphical method or using a template, believing that cars come to the posts only in front, cars enter the posts with additional maneuvering (one-time turning on the reverse); In the process of maneuvering during installation at posts, cars should not enter the protective areas of cars, building elements and stationary equipment at posts; before starting the car movement when its front wheels are installed on the post on turns must be turned by the maximum angle.
When width of passage is determined with the help of a template, it is placed on a car seat on an inspection ditch and moved in the direction of car exit in reverse until its front axle coincides with the end of the inspection ditch. The needle is installed in the center of the template rotation, it is turned to the position, from which, at further reverse movement with wheels turned at maximum angle, the car approaches the row of cars from which the exit takes place, at a distance equal to the width of the external protective zone. Its width is determined taking into account radius of external protective zone on opposite side of passage.
Width of passage in areas of maintenance and maintenance equipment equipped with floor lifts is determined in the same way.
Width of passage in zone with floor posts is determined in the same way as in zone of open parking of cars.
When determining the width of driveways in the maintenance and maintenance zones, the following dimensions of approach of vehicles maneuvering when installed on posts to building structures, stationary equipment and cars located at maintenance and repair posts are adopted: to cars, building structures or stationary equipment located on the side of the passage in which the post is located (internal protective zone) - 0.3 m with cars of categories I and II; 0.5 m - III category and 0.8 m - IV category; to cars, structures of a building or stationary equipment located on the side of the passage opposite to the place of installation of the car (external protective zone) - 0.8 m with cars of categories I and II and 1.0 m ~ III and IV categories.
The overall dimensions of the production areas (workshops) into which cars are to enter are determined taking into account the regulated distances between cars, cars and structural elements of buildings and stationary equipment. According to the established overall dimensions, the area of the plots is determined in accordance with the results of technological calculation, the total area of the building - taking into account the placement of production and storage premises in it.
Based on the established overall dimensions of the maintenance and maintenance zones, the length of the flow lines, the areas of the individual production and storage rooms and the total area of the production building, the structural scheme of the building, the standard grid of columns, the dimensions of the building are selected and the production and storage rooms are arranged.
Production and storage rooms are arranged in the building of the main production building in accordance with the technological process, production connections between zones, sections and warehouses, technological features of production departments, construction, sanitary and hygienic and fire requirements.
ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННЫЙ КОРПУС .cdw
Free downloading for today