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Design of a section for maintenance of small-sized motorcycle equipment at the passenger car maintenance station in Verkhnyaya Pyshma

  • Added: 02.06.2021
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Description

In the Sverdlovsk region there are a huge number of people who love car sports, in particular karting. The name of the race car comes from the English word "cart," which in Russian means "cart." It is believed that after World War II, American military pilots created such motorized trolleys, which were originally used to transport air bombs, and arranged races on them around the airfield, but this entertainment grew into a whole sports discipline, which is widespread around the world. In the USSR, the development of karting dates back to 1961, even then it made a huge stir among participants and spectators.

The city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma has its own karting school, where children under 12 years old can learn the basics of car sports absolutely free of charge. Many famous riders, such as Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher, Lewis Hamilton, Daniil Kvyat, Sergey Sirotkin began their racing career with karting.

The design of the card is extremely simple, you can collect your own card even in the garage, which entails great interest among racing drivers. It was thanks to the simplicity of karting that it became a mass sport, but even these racing cars require qualified maintenance and storage, it is for this purpose that it is planned to create a separate section for the maintenance and storage of small-sized motorcycle equipment in the already existing STO.

Project's Content

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Additional information

Contents

CONTENTS

Introduction

1. Feasibility study

2 Special part

3 Project safety and environmental friendliness

4 Economic part

List of sources used

Introduction

In the Sverdlovsk region there are a huge number of people who love car sports, in particular karting. The name of the race car comes from the English word "cart," which in Russian means "cart." It is believed that after World War II, American military pilots created such motorized trolleys, which were originally used to transport air bombs, and arranged races on them around the airfield, but this entertainment grew into a whole sports discipline, which is widespread around the world. In the USSR, the development of karting dates back to 1961, even then it made a huge stir among participants and spectators.

The city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma has its own karting school, where children under 12 years old can learn the basics of car sports absolutely free of charge. Many famous riders, such as Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher, Lewis Hamilton, Daniil Kvyat, Sergey Sirotkin began their racing career with karting.

The design of the card is extremely simple, you can collect your own card even in the garage, which entails great interest among racing drivers. It was thanks to the simplicity of karting that it became a mass sport, but even these racing cars require qualified maintenance and storage, it is for this purpose that it is planned to create a separate section for the maintenance and storage of small-sized motorcycle equipment in the already existing STO.

Feasibility study

1.1 Characteristics of the enterprise

The main enterprise in the automotive service system, which carries out the repair and maintenance of cars is STO. Modern STOs are multifunctional enterprises that, depending on the capacity and purpose, carry out maintenance and maintenance of cars, assemblies and assemblies, anti-corrosion treatment of the body and its painting, preparation of cars for technical inspection, and consultations on technical operation of cars.

The selected maintenance station is located in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma at ul. Victory 9a. This location is beneficial in that Verkhnyaya Pyshma is the satellite city of Yekaterinburg, as well as the STO is located in the immediate vicinity of the cartodrome. Also in Upper Pyshma, the cost of land and electricity is lower.

1.2 Maintenance Station

The maintenance station has 2 posts. The main activity is maintenance and repair of cars. In the special part of the thesis, a calculation was made in which data were obtained that the STO has free areas for the construction of an additional section for maintenance and R small-sized motorcycle equipment.

The working day at the workshop lasts from 12:00 to 20:45, the lunch break begins at 15:15 and lasts 45 minutes. The STO is located on a protected area, and video surveillance is also carried out on the territory.

On the same territory there is a car wash and tire assembly.

Near the maintenance station there is a site used for parking cars of customers and employees of the enterprise. Also, the director of the STO gave his consent to the storage of race cards in the free premises of his enterprise and further cooperation.

Project Justification

The main purpose of the STO is to maintain and repair cars, but the purpose of this thesis is to organize at this STO an additional section for the maintenance of small-sized motorcycle equipment, in particular sports cards.

Technological equipment HUNDRED will allow to make it without additional investments in the special equipment, such as welding machine, compressor, etc. Moreover, to HUNDRED electrical equipment, heating, water supply and the sewerage are already installed.

It is also worth noting the advantageous location of the selected STO - within a radius of ten kilometers there are four nearby settlements (Sredneuralsk, Sanatorny, Krasny, Berezovsky), as well as several districts of Yekaterinburg. Since the additional section will not focus on racing cards alone, and also, for example, motoblocks, lawn mowers, chainsaws, boat motors, motorcycles, I can confidently claim that the services of this enterprise will be in great demand. If you consider that there is not a single enterprise in Verkhnyaya Pyshma that provides even the most minimal range of services for the above equipment, then, thanks to the construction of an additional section for maintenance and maintenance of small-sized motorcycle equipment, the STO will definitely occupy its niche on the market.

It is worth noting that the STO is located on the territory where a large number of third-party enterprises providing services in the field of automotive service are located, for example, computer diagnostics, air conditioning refueling, tire installation, car wash, body repair. This will provide a large stream of potential customers, that is, if a person arrives to wash his car, then perhaps he will be interested in the services of our STO.

On the territory of the city of Yekaterinburg there are 5 art centers that provide services for the rental of racing equipment and the training of children in their schools. In the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma there is only one karting school. The total number of rental cards alone is about 65 units, this is without taking into account those cards that are owned directly by the racing drivers themselves, the number of which is extremely difficult to determine, if at all possible. According to 2018 data, 765 motorcycles were registered in Yekaterinburg and peripheral cities, which also need maintenance and repair. In addition to motorcycles, 194 quad cycles have official registration with the traffic police, and given that this equipment, which is rarely registered, then its real number exceeds this value. In addition to motorcycles and ATVs, there is also low-speed motor vehicles that do not need to be registered with the traffic police, for example, scooters and mopeds, the number of which is only about 900 units in the city of Yekaterinburg. There are about 260 boat engines. Only this equipment in Yekaterinburg and satellite cities there are about 2300 units.

Maintenance and

repair process

This enterprise is originally intended for servicing cars and belongs to small workshops, since it has up to 10 jobs. If we talk about the maintenance of cars, in this regard, the company works according to a single scheme, that is, the car that arrived at the workshop first passes the post of harvesting, then goes to the post of acceptance, diagnosis of malfunctions and, finally, to the maintenance and repair zone.

It is much more interesting to dwell more on the maintenance of small-sized motorcycle equipment, in particular, racing cards. The process of maintenance and repair of machinery is a certain sequence of actions that ensure high quality of work at minimum cost.

The process of maintenance and repair of small-sized motorcycle equipment is carried out at an additional designed section of the workshop, at work stations. The working post in this area is one machine seat, on which the card itself is located, or its units. The work station is equipped with all necessary equipment, tools and devices for maintenance and repair. One work center includes one or more work centers for carrying out homogeneous types of work.

At STO, maintenance and repair work is carried out using finished spare parts, since the restoration of worn-out parts is impractical, much easier and cheaper on the race card to change the power plant to a new one than to restore the old one, since the costs of engine defects, cylinder thinning, honing, spare parts and work are not comparable to the cost of the new engine. In addition, as practice shows, after such repairs, the engine produces noticeably less power, which is critical in automotive sports. If we take into account the fact that the engines of machines of one type of a certain karting school should develop approximately the same power, then this repair option cannot be used. But there are also exceptions, such as rare engines discontinued, the replacement of which with a similar new one will cost several times more than the repair of the current one. As an example, you can take the CZ engine, on which you can find a lot of spare parts, but which is no longer produced. The approximate cost of such an engine is 10 thousand rubles, and the nearest analogue FR 125 is 155 thousand rubles.

The map is visually inspected before entering the maintenance and maintenance areas. Some cars are operated on the street, while others are only indoors. Based on this, a decision is made on the need for washing, this is done in the car wash next door. Before entering the washing, the cards must be prepared, for this purpose the tightness of the threaded connection of the cover and neck of the gas tank is checked, as well as the tightness of the air filter inlet pipe is ensured using polyethylene film. Further, the cards are delivered to the working post in the maintenance and repair area, where the fault is diagnosed and then eliminated. Additionally, the steering control, braking system, torque of the steering wheel bolts, engine attachment, wheels are checked, the play of the front wheel bearings, the play of the rear shaft attachment bearings, the oil level in the reduction gear box and the engine are also checked. In case of liquid cooling, the level of coolant in the engine cooling radiator is checked, and the radiator is visually inspected. In case of air cooling, the integrity of the engine forced cooling fan impeller is checked.

The steering of the card has the simplest design. The steering wheel is rigidly fixed on the steering column, the steering column is connected through spherical hinges to steering rods, which, in turn, are also connected through spherical hinges to levers rigidly fixed on the pivot. The steering wheel shall have no cracks, notches and other mechanical defects which may cause wounds. The steering tips shall not have a tangible play when the force is applied. Steering rods must have no visible changes in geometry, straightening of the steering rod is unacceptable. For lubrication of the steering tips the plastic lubricant of Gazpromneft EP 2 is used.

The brake system of the card can have hydraulic or mechanical drive only on the rear wheels for cards without a gearbox, as well as hydraulic drive on all wheels for cards with a gearbox. With the mechanical drive of the braking system, the cable (the so-called Bowden cable) running from the brake pedal to the brake caliper is checked. Rope strands must not be torn, rope jacket must have no mechanical damages, rope inside the jacket must move smoothly and without jamming. The minimum thickness of the friction lining, including the base, shall not be less than 3.5 mm, the minimum thickness of the brake disc - not less than 5 mm. Maximum permissible run-out of brake disc 0.1 mm. When the hydraulic actuator of the braking system is installed, the level of the braking fluid is checked. Brake fluid shall be transparent. In case it has a yellowish tint, it is necessary to replace it, and in case of darkening or the presence of small black particles on the walls of the expansion tank, it is advisable to disassemble and replace the cuffs of the main brake cylinder. Then the tightness of the brake pipeline is checked, for this it is necessary to check all connections of the brake main for leakage of the brake fluid.

The frame and map are also visually inspected. Welds shall have no cracks.

Front wheel bearings are checked by applying a multidirectional force to the upper and lower points of the wheel. Not always the reason for the play may be the not fully twisted attachment nut. Tightening torque of front wheels attachment nuts is 610 Nm. Exceeding the permissible tightening torque will inevitably lead to overheating and rapid wear of the bearing, up to the wheel jamming.

Check of bearings of rear shaft attachment is also carried out by organoleptic method. Radial and axial play are not allowed. The most critical is the axial play, since the racing card uses a chain drive from the engine reduction gear to the rear drive shaft. The drive gear is located on the motor reduction gear, which is rigidly and fixedly fixed on the frame, and the driven gear on the shaft itself, so that axial displacement will lead to accelerated wear of the side plates of the chain and skew of the gears, which can lead to chain break during the movement of the card. In practice, it is much easier to change the drive shaft as a whole than to change the bearings on it. This is due to the fact that with long street operation moisture enters the shaft, and an irreversible process of metal corrosion begins. Removing bearings from both ends of such a shaft without damaging the landing surfaces is a very time consuming process, so it is much easier and faster to change the shaft to a new one.

Most rolling cards have a four-stroke internal combustion engine. One of the differences between a four-stroke engine and a two-stroke engine is the need to mix gasoline and oil in a ratio of 1:25 or 1:50 for two-stroke engines. In four-stroke engines of maps up to 9 hp it is necessary to change the oil every 3035 motor hours. In the engine gearbox, if any, oil is replaced at the same interval as the engine. The filling volume of oil into the engine is from 500 to 800 cubic meters. refer to (upper and lower marks on the oil probe), in the gearbox from 200 to 250 cc. See also the fact that oil in the engine and reduction gear for four-stroke engines the manufacturer recommends pouring the same, namely according to the SAE 15W40 classification. Taking into account the above, it is economically advisable to pour 600 kbps into the engine. oils, and in the gearbox 200, because in stores motor oil is sold most often in packing of 4 liters. Thus, one oil can is enough to replace the oil in the engine and reduction gear box on 5 cars.

At the final stage of maintenance and repair at the station, when the declared works are performed, in addition to technical control, calculation is made for repair work, supplied spare parts, materials, and the car is presented to the customer for receipt.

In case it is impossible to determine any defect by inspection, check is performed using special equipment or disassembly of units.

Inspection of the card begins with its installation on a special folding stand. This is done using a stationary electric steel Zitrek PA250, the maximum carrying capacity of which is 250 kg. The entire fully equipped map is 7590 kg, the load capacity is necessary, because in the winter season the toil may not cope with the task. Then a number of maintenance and repair operations are carried out. After repair, the cards are sent to the storage area until they are taken by the customer. The storage area does not have a large area, so it is necessary to use additional devices to rationalize the use of free space. The frame structure of the card allows you to install the support posts in free places, which allows you to install another card on top of this support. Thus, twice as many cars can be placed on the same area.

The process involves monitoring the toxicity of the exhaust gases. This is done using the Avtotest01.02M gas analyzer. If the permissible norm is exceeded, the carburetor is adjusted. Adjusting the quality of the mixture prepared by the inlet system will uniquely affect the performance of all machines, which will lead to the fact that each card will develop a different maximum power and maximum speed. To calibrate each machine, use the AR926 digital photovoltaic tachometer. A retro-reflective mark is applied to the driving wheel, to which the emitter and receiver of this tachometer are directed at right angles. The accelerator pedal is fully pressed on the engine heated to operating temperature and the required maximum speed characteristic is achieved by rotating the accelerator pedal thrust screw. Thus, according to the data from the photoelectric tachometer, the same maximum speed is adjusted on all machines. The driving wheel circumference is assumed to be 0.85 m.

The correct setting of the angle of the steerable wheels has a great influence. On most rolling cards, only the adjustment of the convergence of the front wheels is available, and the camber and the angle of longitudinal inclination of the axis of rotation of the wheel are fixed due to the structure of the frame itself and cannot be adjusted. If there is an adjustment of the angle of longitudinal inclination of the axis of rotation of the wheels, then it is usually stepped and does not require additional equipment. As for convergence angles, for driving in dry weather, convergence from 0 to 2 mm is used (the more winding the track, the more convergence), in wet weather, convergence of more than 2 mm is used. If you take into account that most rental karting and karting schools are in the open air, and they do not have large areas for building large tracks with long lines, then it is advisable to use the average value and establish a convergence of 2 mm. The importance of convergence for rolling karting is not so important, it is much more important to make all machines as similar in technical characteristics as possible. So, to set the convergence angles, it is necessary to remove the wheels and install circular plates with a diameter of 256 mm instead. Then lock the steering wheel in the forward position. Then it is necessary to tighten the thread parallel to the movement of the map, crossing the axis of rotation of the wheel, and measure the distance from the front and rear edges of the plate to the thread - it must be the same. Otherwise, it is necessary to loosen the lock nut on the steering rod on both sides and by rotating the steering rod achieve the same distance from the front and rear edges of the plate to the thread. After the controlled wheels are set to zero convergence, bring the adjustment to the required value. Tighten the lock nuts, preventing the steering rods from turning. Install wheels, tightening torque of attachment nuts 610 Nm.

To adjust the camber of the front wheels, it is necessary to take the same steps, by analogy with the setting of the convergence angle, only the thread in this case must be pulled perpendicular to the direction of movement of the map, crossing the axis of rotation of the wheel.

In racing cards, the Ackerman principle in steering is applied. To adjust the Ackerman angle, several holes are provided on the steering column, to which steering rods are fixed. In order to increase the Ackerman angle, it is necessary to attach the steering rod to the hole below, respectively, in order to reduce the Ackerman angle, it is necessary to use the holes above. Ackerman's angle very much affects the behavior of the race card on the track. For example, on winding tracks, it is better to use a larger Ackerman angle, this will increase the sharpness of control and responsiveness to turning the steering wheel, while on tracks with long straight and gentle turns you can completely abandon this principle in order to maintain a higher maximum speed in the turn.

A very important part of setting up a race card is weight distribution. Ideally for a summer chassis, all weight, including the weight of the pilot, should be concentrated so that 42% of the total load falls on the front wheels, 58% on the rear wheels and 50% on both sides. That is why the engine of racing cards and most rolling cards is located on the right side, while the seat is shifted slightly to the left of the center. Of course, this parameter should be adjusted individually for each rider, based on his weight and height, while being behind the wheel card should be comfortable. For the karting school, this weight distribution parameter can be neglected.

When issuing documentation for acceptance, a card for repair is drawn up, where the results of external inspection, the technical condition of units, units and parts, as well as missing parts are noted. For each type of work in the diagnostic map, a note is made on the technical condition of the tested systems, the map. Detected faults and necessary spare parts are recorded in the repair request. All these works are carried out in the presence of the customer, who decides on the need to carry out any further repair activities. If he agrees, he signs an application for repair, which is the basis for opening a work order. Here, the certificate of completeness of the race card, which is signed by the customer and an employee of the workshop, is filled in.

Once the scope and nature of the work has been established, the CT employee will complete the work order with all the work prices and spare parts. The customer receives a second copy of the completed work order. After all these operations, the machine is sent to the work post.

Once the scope and nature of the work has been established, the receiver will fill in the work order by entering the price list items describing the name of the work and the cost of its execution.

The customer, having received one copy of the completed work order or order, distills the car to one of the work posts. If there are no free working posts or the car is accepted for long-term repairs, then it is distilled to the parking lot of the repair fund.

The time taken to receive one card is 20 minutes.

After maintenance and repair, acceptance inspection is carried out, the results of which fit into the previously completed diagnostic map. This method of acceptance and preparation of a request for repair allows you to identify all faults, which means that it reduces the loss of time in production for additional identification of faults and their inclusion in the order, allows you to carry out high quality repairs.

In preparation for winter operation, rubber is replaced. It is worth making the right choice of rubber for winter operation. For maps operated on ice, winter studded rubber is necessary, and for maps operated in winter conditions on asphalt, non-studded winter rubber is better. Studded rubber very badly harms the asphalt surface, so in 2-3 winter seasons the race track will become unusable. Chain and hinge joints are also lubricated. Special attention should be paid to the frame, since some cartodromes use reagents to remove ice crust from the surface of the route. All emerging corrosion sites must be cleaned and painted.

Adjustment work involves adjusting the angle of installation of controlled wheels, chain tension. Adjustment of chain tension is not very important, since the driving and driven gears of the chain gear do not move relative to each other during operation. Of course, there is minimal movement due to the bending of the frame during the passage of superelevations, but we do not take them into account. Permissible chain sag 1020 mm.

Fastening works are required to eliminate oil, brake, cooling fluids and fuel leaks through the connections. When tightening the threaded connections of the engine and chassis, the condition of these connections is checked.

Lubrication and filling works include level check, oil addition and replacement in engine crankcase, reduction gear box, replenishment or change of lubricant in front and rear wheel bearings, hinge joints, refuelling or replacement of braking or cooling liquids. Filling operations are performed with cleaning or replacement of filtering elements and settling tanks. Operations are performed according to lubrication maps.

At the STO, a 1000 cc measuring cup is used to measure the exact amount of motor oil in the engine and reduction gear box. See This volume is enough to measure 600 cubic meters. see oils for filling it into the engine and 200 cc. refer to for filling of gearbox. A plunger syringe GROZ GR43000 is used to supply plastic lubricants. Plastic lubricants are put into bearings, hinged connections through the lubricant press.

As previously written, in addition to the individual repair method, an aggregate one is used on the designed site. In this case, a new or restored unit is installed on the card. This is done to reduce the time the card is in repair, as well as, in some cases, to reduce repair costs.

You need a tool to disassemble and assemble a map. Large use is made of turn keys, special screwdrivers and corresponding removers. Removed parts, units and assemblies are transported for repair or storage to the corresponding sections, for which purpose they are laid in various containers and on trolleys. Containers with removed units and assemblies that do not need disassembly and restoration are sent to the storage room, where they are located on special racks. The storage area serves as the picking unit of the STO, which is an important part of the planning and production service of the enterprise.

Cards and installed units after assembly are tested to confirm their operability, run-in, detection of defects on the nearby cardboard. Check of the map is carried out by reference mileage along the installed track with effective timing. In case of poor travel time of the circle of cards, additional service can be sent.

The posts of the designed area require the purchase of additional equipment. So, for example, for lifting the card, an electric stationary steel Zitrek PA250 with a lifting capacity of 250 kg is required, manually operated hydraulic press OPS10, contactless photoelectric tachometer AR926 for setting the maximum engine speed, gas analyzer of Avtotest01.02M, the device for a bortirovaniye of wheels ToregT1, a folding support for the card, set for adjustment of angles of installation of wheels, the SO7B compressor with an additional receiver on 200 liters and also the pressure switch and an osushitelvlagootdelitel.

Welding works are an integral part of the production life of service enterprises. Sometimes such situations occur when it is necessary to restore the frame map. There are various types of damage. If it is deformation of the frame due to impact, then such frames cannot be repaired, but there are damage associated with cracking of welding seams. In such a case, argon welding is used to eliminate this fault in order to maintain the initial shape of the frame and give it lost strength.

Works on restoration of plastic elements are also performed at the STO. So, damage to the nose fairings is not uncommon. The cost of the new kit is about 12 thousand rubles. Repairs will cost approximately 1,500 rubles. In addition, since 2017, at the request of the international automobile federation, racing cards that are not equipped with a front fairing are not allowed, and certain places of attachment of the box to the frame are also regulated.

In the designed area, it is also planned to produce services for painting the frame. The frame is the most expensive element of any card, so it deserves special attention when servicing equipment. To paint the frame, it is necessary to separate all elements from it: plastic envelopes, wheels, steering system, braking system, pilot seat, engine, wheels, pivots. After that, AC-1 CHEMIST flush is applied to the painted frame, which destroys the paint layer, which simplifies the grinding of the frame. Further, corrosion centers are cleaned. After surface preparation, universal Vixen soil is applied to the frame in two layers. After that, the two-component auto-emal Vika is painted, the color of which is selected by the customer. Paint is applied in 2 or 3 layers. The quality control of the frame painting is carried out visually. The assembly process is carried out no earlier than in a day - only after the enamel is completely dried. For painting works the area is equipped with pneumatic paint sprinkler ZITREK 0182480, compressor SO-7B with receiver volume of 250 liters. Also, this compressor is additionally equipped with a pressure switch and a filter-moisture separator .

Since tires in automobile sports are a consumable element, tire assembly work must be carried out at the designed workshop. In this area, tyres are installed and removed, punctures are repaired, wheel disk valves are replaced. The equipment of the section consists of a universal stand for beating wheels. This stand is necessary due to the geometric features of the wheels of the race card. To disassemble this wheel manually, it must be rigidly fixed, and it is difficult to do this without a special device. Universal device represents base with threaded hole in middle, vertical rod with holes for attachment of lever bracket at different height. Besides, device is equipped with lever to remove tire from disk. The lever has such a structure that one end thereof has a flat shape with a horn cut in the middle, which is used to twist the wheel attachment nut, and at the other end a movable roller for mounting the tire on the disc. The site is also equipped with a water tank for checking air leaks.

Economic part

Introduction

To assess the economic feasibility of the project, it is necessary to calculate the profitability and payback period. Typical formulas used to calculate car maintenance stations are not applicable to the economic evaluation of the project. Therefore, I propose to determine all costs for equipment, electricity, water supply, sewerage, tools, appliances, wages for workers, etc. It is also necessary to calculate the estimated profit of the enterprise within one calendar year.

Output:

The economic calculation showed that investments in the amount of 199831 rubles. will be profitable and pay off within 2.4 years.

The salary of one worker is 11,760 rubles per month only from servicing race cards. Do not forget that the site as a whole specializes in small-sized motorcycle equipment, so the real salary will be higher, given that only in the city of Yekaterinburg there are about 2300 units of small-sized motorcycle equipment, and within a radius of 10 kilometers from the STO there are 5 more settlements where there is not a single specialized maintenance station.

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