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Design of a passenger car with a total weight of 1500 kg with detailed development of a six-speed gearbox - Diploma project

  • Added: 09.07.2014
  • Size: 8 MB
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Description

Diploma project-Design of a passenger car with a total weight of 1500 kg with detailed development of a six-speed gearbox type DSG

Project's Content

Name Size
icon razrabotka_shestistupenchatoj_korobki_peredach.rar
8 MB
icon Joiners_KP2110_DSG
icon 1.1.doc
2 MB
icon 1.2.doc
926 KB
icon 3.5.doc
348 KB
icon bzhd.doc
125 KB
icon Detailing.dwg
260 KB
icon degree.xls
562 KB
icon layout_and_graphics.dwg
393 KB
icon General_view_of_CP.bak
978 KB
icon General_view_of_CP.dwg
1 MB
icon General_view_of_KP_1_1_1085.sv_$.bak
3 MB
icon General_view_of_KP_1_1_1085.sv_$.dwg
3 MB
icon table_of_contents.doc
71 KB
icon Calculation_of_parameters.doc
285 KB
icon Table_2.3_(TAIT).doc
1 MB
icon Table_6.9.doc
91 KB
icon Technoligiya.dwg
496 KB
icon Technological.doc
11 MB
icon Titulnyy1+1.doc
32 KB
icon Economy_(A3).dwg
39 KB
icon DP_label.doc
27 KB

Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1 Terms of Reference

1.1 Technical requirements

1.1.1 Main parameters and dimensions of the vehicle

1.1.2 Requirements for survivability and resistance to external influences

1.1.3 Reliability Requirements

1.1.4 Requirements for ergonomics, habitability and technical aesthetics

1.1.5 Maintenance convenience requirements,

repair and storage

1.1.6 Evacuation and evacuation requirements

1.1.7 Safety Requirements

1.1.8 Requirements for Transportation and Storage

1.2 Design Requirements

1.2.1 General requirements

1.2.2 Requirements for engine and engine systems

1.2.3 Requirements for transmission and undercarriage

1.2.3.1 General requirements for transmission and undercarriage

1.2.3.2 Suspension requirements

1.2.3. Requirements for the body

1.2.4 Requirements for electrical equipment

1.2.5 Braking system requirements

2 Analysis and design selection of the developed unit

2.1 Brief History of Node Development

2.2 Basic requirements for the unit

2.3 Classic versions of the given unit

2.4 Patent studies of the design under consideration

2.5 Analysis of the considered design options

2.6 Dual-flow clutch gearbox

3 Calculation of traction-speed and fuel-economic characteristics of the car

3.1. Calculation of traction and speed characteristics of the car

3.1.1 Initial data

3.1.2 Preselection of tyres

3.1.3 Estimation of efficiency of the prototype transmission

3.1.4 Determination of maximum engine power

3.1.4.1 Determination of maximum engine power by maximum speed

3.1.4.2. Determination of maximum engine power by maximum dynamic factor

3.1.5 Construction of engine external speed characteristic

3.1.6 Determining the gear ratio of the main gear

3.1.7 Definition of the first transmission

3.1.8 Determination of gear ratios of gearbox

3.1.9 Calculation and construction of engine dynamic characteristic

3.1.10 Vehicle power balance

3.1.11 Calculation of vehicle acceleration

3.1.12 Calculation of acceleration time and path to the assigned speed

3.1.13 Gear ratio selection and dynamic calculation

3.2 Fuel Economy Assessment

4 Gearbox calculation

4.1 Determination of gearbox basic parameters

4.2 Calculation of teeth

4.2.1 Determination of total number of teeth of gear pair

4.2.2 Verification calculation

4.3 Calculation of shafts

4.3.1 Calculation of high-speed shaft

4.3.1.1 Design calculation

4.3.1.2 Gear Shaft Material

4.3.1.3 Shaft sketch and design diagram

4.3.1.4 Verification calculation

4.3.1.5 Calculation of shaft for resistance to plastic deformations

4.3.1.6 Calculation of shaft for resistance to fatigue resistance

5 Process Part

5.1 Procurement Selection

5.2 Selection of first gear processing methods

5.3 Route Machining Process

gears of the first gear

6. Safety of life

6.1 Analysis of hazardous and harmful factors of bearing cover manufacturing process

6.2. Development of measures to ensure safe and harmless working conditions in the workplace

6.3 Calculation of mechanical workshop lighting

7 Economics and organization of production

7.1 Assessment of the quality level of the designed bridge

7.2 Calculation of annual economic effect, from implementation

new rear axle structure

7.2.1 Calculation of Capital Costs

7.2.1.1 Cost of buildings and structures

7.2.1.2 Equipment Cost

7.2.1.3 Cost of tools and tooling

7.2.1.4 R&D costs

7.2.1.5 Working capital

7.2.2 Calculation of unit cost

7.2.2.1 Costs of raw materials, materials and purchased products

7.2.2.2 Fuel and energy consumption for process purposes

7.2.2.3 Basic wages of workers

7.2.2.4 Equipment maintenance and operation costs

7.2.2.5 Shop and plant-wide expenses

Conclusion

Literature

Applications

Introduction

Modern automotive industry is the leading industry of mechanical engineering in industrialized countries, influencing the processes of economic and social development of society. It gives impetus to the development of other industries, stimulates the employment of the population both in the production of automotive equipment and its components, and in the maintenance of road transport.

The main directions for the development of the domestic automotive industry, adopted in Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 135 "On additional measures to attract investments for the development of the domestic automotive industry" dated 05.02.1998, Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 286 "On the main directions for the development of the Russian automotive industry for the period until 2005." from 15.03.1999 and the project "Concept for the development of the Russian automotive industry for the period up to 2010." from 21.03.2002, it is to ensure the competitive attractiveness of new cars, increase their technical level, quality of manufacture, technology and organization of production .

The technical level of the car as a whole is determined by the reliability, stability and quality of execution of all its components, assemblies, individual parts, components, as well as the quality of assembly.

One of the main elements of the car is the gearbox (gearbox). CP is a transmission unit that converts the engine torque in magnitude and direction and allows the driver to choose rational modes of acceleration and steady-state movement of the vehicle in various road conditions.

1.1.2 Requirements for survivability and resistance

to external influences

The vehicle shall be designed for operation under the following conditions:

in the range of operating temperatures from minus 45˚S to plus 50˚S, the lower limit value of temperature minus 50 ˚S (not more than 6 hours per day);

at relative air humidity up to 98%, at temperature up to plus 25˚S;

at dust content of air up to 1.0 g/m3;

at wind speed up to 20 m/s;

at precipitation intensity up to 180 mm/h;

at atmospheric reduced pressure 433 mm hg. Art. (at an altitude of 4000 m above sea level) with a corresponding decrease in traction dynamic qualities, with the ability to overcome individual passes up to 4650 m high (pressure 425 mm hg. Art.).

1.1.3 Reliability Requirements

1. When operating in mixed road conditions (with the distribution of total mileage by road types according to OST 37.001.47288), the car shall have the following reliability indicators (for the 1st category of operating conditions):

mean time between design and production failures as per GOST 27.00289 within the warranty mileage - not less than 15,000 km;

average life before overhaul - not less than 220,000 km;

warranty service life - not less than 1 year without mileage limitation;

the average shelf life is not less than 12 years, subject to the rules of storage and scheduled maintenance.

2. The life of the main units and assemblies of cars (body, engine, gearbox, transfer box, driving axles, steering) should be at least the life of cars before overhaul. Body life - before decommissioning.

1.1.4 Requirements for ergonomics, habitability and technical aesthetics

1. The body and main parameters of the driver's workplace (internal space, location and limits of adjustments of the seat, main controls, driver's working position) shall comply with the requirements of OST 37.001.41386. Upon agreement with the customer, it is allowed to change individual parameters of the driver's workplace to fulfill special requirements.

2. The backs of the front seats must be folded back in order to form two places for rest.

1.1.5 Maintenance, Repair and Storage Convenience Requirements

1. The design of the car should ensure the convenience and simplicity of maintenance, repair and storage.

2. The number of types of maintenance when using a car must be no more than four:

daily maintenance (ETO), which also includes inspection inspections before leaving the fleet and en route;

maintenance 1 (TO-1) - periodic maintenance with a frequency of 4000 km;

maintenance 2 (TO-2) - periodic maintenance with a frequency of 16,000 km;

seasonal maintenance (CO).

3. It is allowed to assign one-time maintenance after running-in of the car.

4. One-time operational labor intensity of ETO (excluding labor costs for harvesting work) - not more than 0.2 chel∙ch.

5. Specific total operational labour intensity per cycle of periodic maintenance is not more than 0.8 (chel∙ch )/( 1000 km).

6. Threaded plugs of filling (control) and drain holes (necks) of one unit must be made under one type of wrench. Threaded plugs of all car units are not more than two key sizes.

7. Fuel tank necks shall be equipped with a device ensuring that the tank is filled manually from a canister or bucket.

1.1.6 Evacuation and evacuation requirements

1. The car must be adapted for evacuation by special evacuation tractors.

2. The vehicle shall be equipped with a rear towing device and two front hooks.

3. The design of the car should provide the possibility of its:

pulling out when stuck;

evacuation by half-load on a special evacuation device, by hanging the front or rear of the machine within the angles of exit and entry;

starting the engine from the tugboat;

towing with a non-operating engine, with limitation of speed and descent angles, according to the residual brake efficiency, when towing on a soft hitch;

towing with operating engine with provision of normal temperature mode of its operation.

4. The traction capabilities of the car should provide the possibility of using it as a tractor for towing cars of the same type in class. This requirement does not apply to extreme situations (total off-road, maximum ford depth, height above sea level, 30˚ rise, etc.). The use of the car is allowed for a short time, not more than 30 s. It is allowed to briefly tow the same type of cars with a choice of safe speed, safe relief of the towing route, determined by the possibility of braking.

5. The duration of the preparation and coupling of the vehicle with the towing tractor shall not exceed 0.2 hours in the horizontal section.

6. A spare wheel must be placed and fixed on the car. The design of the wheels shall provide the possibility of replacing the damaged wheel with a spare one, as well as the installation and removal of tires in the field, by one person, using the tool included in the vehicle set, and ensure the complete safety of personnel during these works.

1.1.7 Safety Requirements

1. The safety of the car operation must comply with the requirements of the regulatory and technical documentation in force at the time of development of the car. These requirements do not apply to safety standards that cannot be met due to special requirements of the customer.

2. The limit speed of the vehicle at which its skid and/or overturning does not occur when entering the turn with a radius of 25 m on a horizontal level road with a coefficient of adhesion of more than 0.5 must be at least 45 km/h.

3. The construction of a rigid top car should ensure the preservation of living space for crew members when loading the roof with an evenly distributed mass.

1.1.8 Requirements for Transportation and Storage

1. Vehicles shall be transported by rail, water or air. It is allowed to transport cars on their own. When transporting cars by water or air, they must be fixed according to the ship's scheme or air transportation scheme. Devices are required to prevent damage to parts and painting of the car.

2. Loading and unloading of cars must be carried out by crane with the help of special grips.

3. In case of long-term storage (more than 45 days), the car must be preserved (keeping the technically serviceable car in a state that ensures its long-term storage).

1.2 Design Requirements

1.2.1 General requirements

1. The following additional equipment shall be placed, attached and connected on the vehicle:

- vehicle documentation;

- Driver's tool kit;

− set ZIP

-- medical first aid kit

- fire extinguisher

is an emergency stop sign.

2. The vehicle shall be provided with operational documentation in accordance with the requirements of the current regulatory and technical documents.

1.2.2 Requirements for engine and engine systems

1. The engine must not lose operability when the car is inclined in the longitudinal and transverse planes by angles of 85 ° and 25 °, respectively.

2. The power supply system must be equipped with at least two fuel tanks with a system that does not allow fuel leakage at maximum permissible rolls and deformations.

3. Arrangement of fuel tank drain devices (plugs) shall ensure complete fuel drain from tanks, free access and convenience of fuel collection in tanks (canisters).

1.2.3 Requirements for transmission and undercarriage

1.2.3.1 General requirements for transmission and undercarriage

1. The gearbox (gearbox) must be six-speed with synchronizers in all gears in the forward direction.

2. The vehicle shall be equipped with a suspension:

- front - on two springs with the same or different pitch of turns with a lateral stability stabilizer and a two-way telescopic type hydraulic shock absorber;

- rear - on two springs with the same or different pitch of turns and a two-way telescopic type hydraulic shock absorber.

4. Suspension of power unit (engine, CP) - three-point.

1.2.3.2 Suspension requirements

The following requirements are imposed on the suspension of the car:

1. smooth running;

2. providing traffic on uneven roads without hitting the limiter;

3. restriction of the transverse roll of the car;

4. kinematic matching of controlled wheels movements, which prevents their oscillations relative to pivots (axis of rotation);

5. providing attenuation of body and wheel vibrations;

6. constancy of track, wheel inclination angles, constancy of pivots inclination angles;

7. reliable transmission from wheels to body of longitudinal and transverse forces;

8. reduced weight of unsprung parts

9. general requirements:

- ensuring minimum dimensions and mass;

- simplicity of device and maintenance;

- processability;

- reliability and repairability;

- low noise level.

1.2.3. Requirements for the body.

1. The body is equipped with a ventilation and heating system, windscreen washers, two external rear-view mirrors. The body has vibration and noise insulation.

2. Windscreen glass - bent, safe, three-layer. Rear and side - hardened.

3. The cabin is equipped with two adjustable seats.

1.2.4 Requirements for electrical equipment

1. Electrical products shall comply with the following standards:

GOST 3940-80; GOST 6964-72; GOST 10984-74; GOST 969-91 and other regulatory technical documentation in force at the time of development of the car.

2. Mass-produced electrical equipment products used on cars of the Russian automotive industry are installed on the car.

3. The power of the generator plant installed on the car should provide a positive balance of electricity.

4. The vehicle shall have a "mass" switch controlled from the driver's workplace, a plug connector (socket) of the portable lamp for connection to the on-board network.

5. Radio interference caused by an automobile shall not exceed the values specified in UNECE Regulation No. 10 and GOST 61318.12 - 99.

6. Nomenclature, color and location of external lighting devices according to GOST 8769-75.

7. Instrument bundles shall ensure quick disconnection of electrical circuits and avoid errors during their assembly.

1.2.5 Braking system requirements

1. The braking system of the vehicle shall comply with the requirements of GOST 22895-77 and UNECE Regulation No. 13.

2. The service braking system is divided into front and rear brakes.

3. Brake drive - foot, hydraulic, double-circuit.

4. Brake system amplifier - vacuum acting on the main cylinder.

Conclusion

These technical and structural requirements are most fully satisfied by the VAZ2110 car, which can be considered as the closest prototype.

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