Design of a greenhouse heat tracing system using solar energy in OOO Agrofirme Rostock, Ivnyansky District
- Added: 11.06.2018
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Contents. Heleoelectric heating of the greenhouse. Introduction. Business analysis. General information about the farm. Climat.Relief. Economic indicators. Indicators of the economy's availability of labor resources and their labor productivity. Characteristics of the tractor fleet and the fleet of s/c machines. Electrical part. Description of the existing economy at Rostock LLC and justification of the diploma project. Process part. Overview of microclimate technologies. Microclimate equipment. Thermophysical calculation of the greenhouse. Purpose of thermophysical calculation. Thermophysical calculation stages. Accepted assumptions. Design diagram of heat exchange in the film greenhouse. Physico-mathematical model of energy mode formation in greenhouse with single coating. Expression of heat loss flows through the defining parameters for the greenhouse. Calculation of total heat losses for greenhouse with film enclosure covered with condensate. Calculation of thermal power of the film greenhouse equipment. Physico-mathematical model of energy mode formation in greenhouse with additional developments. The equation of thermal balance for the working area of i. The equation of thermal balance for the working area of i I.Uravnenie of thermal balance for the surface of the soil. The thermal balance equation for the zone cover surface. The equation of thermal balance on the surface of the outer fence of the greenhouse. The equation of thermal balance for the entire structure. Heat flows of greenhouse losses with zone heating are expressed through their defining parameters. Control of the electrothermal equipment system in the greenhouse at reduced voltage. Design and electrical part. Calculation of the proposed greenhouse for the farm. How to solve the modernization of the greenhouse electrification system. Calculation of thermal balance of greenhouse installation. Calculation of traction electromagnet. Calculation of electromagnet springs. Calculation of ventilation system. Plenum and exhaust units. Calculation of watering system. Safety of life and environmental friendliness of the project. Greenhouses with electric heating. The state of labor protection at the enterprise. Circumstances and causes of injuries. Injury prevention measures. Description of the creamery of workers in the enterprise. Disease prevention activities. Fire safety status. Fire fighting measures. Description of working conditions. Measures to improve working conditions. Environmental friendliness of the project. Description of environmentally harmful factors of production. Clean production activities. Grounding: Calculation of the loop grounding of the greenhouse. The economic part. Economic justification of the project. Conclusions. Conclusion. Department of Scientific and Technological Policy and Education. Fgou vpo. "Belgorod state agricultural. Academy. "Kafedra" Electrification, Automation and Life Safety. "
Current state of activity of SEC "Agrofirma Culture"
Organizational and economic characteristics of the enterprise
Agroclimatic characteristics of production conditions
Design and processing part
Select Enterprise Distribution Network Diagram
Selection of number and power of transformers
Calculation of power losses in selected transformers
Design of facility electrification
Lighting Network Calculation
Calculation of plant illumination units
Load calculation, selection of start-up equipment, grade and
sections of wires and cables
Automate microclimate management processes
Temperature and humidity mode during seedlings cultivation
main crops in winter greenhouses
Development of the greenhouse microclimate control scheme
Meter-regulator microprocessor TRM
KEB COMBIVERT Capabilities
Organization of electrical equipment operation
Organization of electrical service at the enterprise
Calculation of the number and salary of EFV personnel
Life safety and ecology
Protection against electric shock
Protection of substation against direct lightning strikes
Calculation of substation grounding device
Define Capital Investments
Calculation of operating costs
Calculation of cost-effectiveness indicators from
using automatic control system
The purpose of the diploma project is to automate the microclimate control processes of the greenhouse block of the SEC "Agrofirma Culture" of the Bryansk district
When writing a diploma project, the annual reports of SEC Agrofirma Kultura were used to analyze the production and economic activities of the enterprise.
In the diploma project, the calculation and selection of the necessary technological equipment, the calculation and selection of equipment for maintaining the microclimate in the premises are carried out in order to increase labor productivity and reduce the cost of production. The calculation of lighting with the choice of types of lamps and lamps is also given.
A schematic electrical diagram of the operation of gate valves for heating for steam, based on the meter-regulator of the microprocessor TM148, has been developed. This meter allowed us to automatically open, and close steam heating depending on the temperature in the greenhouse.
The design version of automatic heating of drinking water is economically justified.
The explanatory note is written on 1 sheet of printed text.
The graphic part is presented on 8 sheets of A1 format.
Given the need to ensure growth in production volumes and in both industrial and agricultural spheres of the country's economy, a number of tasks arise that are directly related to the energy supply to consumers. One of these tasks is the quality and uninterrupted supply of electricity. Its solution can be the design of new power lines and lowering substations for consumers.
In conditions of rapid development of electronics and the latest technologies (requiring, if not direct use of electricity, then its use for systems of control and control of technological processes, means of information processing, development of telecommunication systems). An increase in electricity consumption is inevitable, not only by the large industrial centers and enterprises of almost any industry currently available, but also by forecasted and organized small firms, organizations, as well as household consumers.
Based on the above, the problem of designing power supply schemes for small areas and consumers with relatively low loads remains urgent.
The introduction of computers into energy is of great importance, which will greatly accelerate the calculation processes, which are complex and require great accuracy and speed. You can solve these problems using the introduction of modern software.
Current state of activity of SEC Agrofirma
1.1 Organizational and economic characteristics of the enterprise
Agricultural production cooperative "Agrofirma Kultura" is a unique enterprise for the Bryansk region. By the end of the 1990s, Agrofirma was firmly entrenched in the positions of one of the leading agricultural enterprises in the country.
SEC "Agrofirma Culture" was created on the basis of JSC "Culture" and is the successor to the property rights and obligations of JSC "Culture." SEC Agrofirma Kultura was registered on May 20, 1997. From the moment of state registration, the cooperative is a legal entity and operates on the basis of the Charter, as well as existing legislative and legal acts.
The governing bodies of SEC Agrofirma Kultura are: general meeting, supervisory board, chairman.
The management structure of the farm is linear-functional. The basis is the industry (workshop) principle of production organization.
The economy is a number of interacting units. Production structure - shop floor. The agricultural company includes a cooperative for the production of open-soil crop products and the storage of vegetables, a division for the production of greenhouse products and a division for the production of livestock products, which is engaged in, among other things, fodder production, a milk processing workshop, a canning and slaughter workshop.
Also in the farm there are maintenance plants: a fleet, a repair shop, an electrical engineering service, a construction workshop and a tractor fleet.
The commercial service ensures the organization of market and brand trade. The cooperative carries out away trade in the markets of Bryansk and the region. Vegetable products have been delivered for the past three years almost throughout Russia.
SEC "Agrofirma Kultura" is located in the central part of the Bryansk region. The central estate of the farm with. Dobrun is located 10 km from the district and regional centers and 1018 km from the nearest points of delivery of agricultural products. Communication with these objects is carried out by roads of regional significance "OrelRoslavl" and federal significance "BryanskGomel."
1.2 Agroclimatic characteristics of production conditions
According to the main climatic factors that determine the condition for growth and development of crops, the land use of the SEC Agrofarm "Culture" is located in a zone with a temperate continental climate, with warm summers and moderately cold winters, with sufficient humidification.
Average annual air temperature + 4.7 С. The duration of the vegetation period of plants is 185 days. The average annual rainfall is 610 mm. The climate of the region as a whole is favorable for growing a wide range of crops.
The land use relief is a wavy watershed plateau, strongly divided by a beam network into a number of small watersheds.
The soil cover of the farm is relatively uniform. It is represented by gray and light gray forest soils of a light coal mechanical composition, occupying up to 98% of arable land. The agricultural company is characterized by strong plowing and high agricultural development of the territory. Land use is represented by a relatively compact, slightly elongated land mass from north to south.
The natural water sources on the territory of the farm are the Desna, Rudka, Kostrovka, Bologna, Malaya River and a number of small streams. A pond was built near the village of Teschenichi.
SEC "Agrofirma Kultura" is located outside the radiation contamination zone. The activities of the farm itself do not cause significant pollution to the environment. The farm has 45 stationary sources of atmospheric air pollution: a complex of mechanical workshops, a welding site, a grain drying complex and others. The main source of pollution is film and glazed greenhouses.
The Cooperative focuses on environmental issues. Thus, in order to protect water sources and land from pollution by sewage from livestock farms and complexes, the farm has been cut off and collapsed, and the construction of treatment facilities is provided.
When introducing mineral fertilizers on fields adjacent to water sources, their fractional use is used so that they can be decomposed and absorbed into the soil. This technique prevents the flushing of fertilizers into water sources, causing the death of fish.
The protection of forest lands consists of a conservation event. Since the forest performs a protective, water protection function, in order to preserve the forest in the farm, unauthorized logging of these areas is prohibited, with the exception of sanitary care measures.
Protection of pastures and arable land consists in watering on time and in the norm recommended in the working project on land management. This prevents waterlogging. It is also prohibited to shepherd livestock on lands not reserved for this purpose. To avoid blowing out of the fertile soil layer, the project provides for planting protective forest belts.
Special attention is paid to the protection of insects that are pollinators of meadow grasses and crops, for this purpose, the treatment of honey plants during flowering is prohibited. Kosovica in fields and meadows begins from the middle of the field so that the birds and animals there can leave for the adjacent forests and beams.
Due to the close proximity of the farm to the filling points, there is no need to create large-scale GSM warehouses. All chemicals are stored in specially equipped warehouses. The repositories meet the requirements of GOST, and the storage of material assets is carried out in the appropriate order.
SEC Agrofirma "Culture" for accounting for profits makes deductions to environmental funds. At the expense of these funds, an environmental tax of 10% is paid to the budget.
Thus, the natural conditions of the economy and a number of measures to protect them, in order to maintain economic balance, contribute to and are suitable for the cultivation of a wide range of crops, the development of dairy cattle breeding and the use of high-throughput technologies.
Along with environmental problems, the social sphere of the Agricultural Company should be considered. The financial capacity of this organization allows not only to expand and improve existing production, but also to provide social guarantees for cooperative workers.
SEC Agrofirma "Culture" does not stop the construction of residential buildings for its employees. Today in the village of Dobrun more than 60 multi-storey residential buildings and 41 cottages. However, if earlier the state actively financed the construction, now it is carried out exclusively at the expense of the economy.
To obtain environmentally friendly products, the farm uses a biomethode, which is a biological laboratory under glass with an area of 0.3 hectares. Also, work is underway to improve working conditions in a mechanical workshop for repairing tractors.
Among the sectors of the social sphere, the leading place is occupied by household services. On the balance sheet of the enterprise is a hairdresser, kindergarten, school, house of culture, dining room building, dormitory, atelier for sewing clothes.
Social protection of employees is organized in the cooperative: monthly remuneration for seniority is paid, disability benefits are issued, surcharges for harm are provided, burial benefits.
The leadership of "Culture" does not forget about pensioners. After retirement, workers are paid material assistance in the amount of 1 to 3 months' earnings, depending on the length of service.
For environmental education of children and schoolchildren, thematic evenings on environmental topics are organized, competitions of children's drawings on the topic "Ecology through the eyes of children" are held.
In order to improve the ecological literacy of leading agricultural specialists, it is necessary to conduct classes and seminars on environmental problems.
Select Enterprise Distribution Network Diagram
Distribution of electric power is performed by main, radial or mixed circuits.
The choice of the scheme is determined by the category of reliability of electricity consumers, their territorial location, and the features of operating modes.
Radial are circuits in which electricity from the power source is transmitted directly to the receiving point. More often, radial circuits with a number of stages of no more than two are used.
Single-stage radial circuits are used in small and medium-sized enterprises to power concentrated consumers (pumping stations, furnaces, converter units, substations) located in various directions from the power center.
Radial diagrams provide deep sequencing of the entire power supply system, starting from the power supply and ending with prefabricated buses up to 1 kW substations.
Power supply of large substations or distribution points with predominance of consumers of the first category is provided by at least two radial lines coming from different sections of power sources.
Separately located single-transformer substations with a capacity of 400630 kW receive power via single radial lines without redundancy, if there are no consumers of the first and second category and according to the conditions of laying, its quick repair is possible. If separate substations have consumers of the second category, then their supply should be carried out by a two-cable line with a disconnector on each cable.
Main power distribution schemes are used when many consumers and radial schemes are impractical. The main advantage of the backbone scheme is the reduction of communication links.
It is advisable to use backbone schemes when the substations are located on the plant territory close to linear, which contributes to the direct passage of the highways from the power source to consumers and thereby reduce the length of the highway.
The disadvantage of trunk circuits is lower reliability compared to radial circuits, since the possibility of redundancy at the lower voltage of single-transformer substations when supplying them along one line is excluded.
It is recommended to supply from one line no more than two or three transformers with a capacity of 2500:1000 kVA and no more than four or five at a power of 630:250 kVA.
With main power supply circuits of shop substations, cheaper switching equipment in the form of a load switch or disconnector is installed at the input to the transformer. If it is necessary to ensure selective disconnection of the transformer in case of its damage or if the protection on the head switch is not sensitive, then a PC type fuse is installed in series with the load switch or disconnector, designed to disconnect the damaged transformer without disrupting the rest. Two cases of power supply are considered.
To power the process site, it is planned to build four TPs with a voltage of 10/0.4kV.
Automation of greenhouse block microclimate control processes
In greenhouse plants, seedlings for all revolutions in winter greenhouses are grown in separate structures - seedlings or seedlings directly on the ground surface (without racks), which provides for saving area and the possibility of mechanization. In seedling-free periods, only green crops (if possible with a short vegetation period) are grown in seedling greenhouses in several revolutions or seedlings of vegetable crops for film greenhouses, greenhouses and shelters. For the prevention of pests and pathogens, it is not recommended to grow cucumber and other crops of the Pumpkin family, tomato and other patties, as well as bulb onions, in seedlings. For seedlings, special crop turnover is made up, taking into account the timing of seedlings cultivation.
4.1 Seedlings growing temperature and humidity mode
main crops in winter greenhouses
In combination with electric illumination, carbon dioxide feeding gives good results when it is concentrated in the air of the greenhouse 0.1... 0.15%. Seedlings are watered moderately through the sprinkling system (up to 3... 5 min) with warm water (25... 28 "Oh, bringing the humidity of pots to 75... 80% NV.
Seedlings with mineral fertilizers are usually not used, since in peat pots there are enough macro and trace elements for the entire seedling period. When growing seedlings in
in pots with bulk soil, the possibility of carrying out one or two feeding, often with nitrogen fertilizers, is not excluded, since the compounds of this element are washed out during watering.
4.2 Development of greenhouse microclimate control scheme
The following electrical equipment is used in the production process:
Meter-regulator microprocessor TRM148
Contactors of KMI11210 12A 230B/AC3 1H0 IEK;
ANC-22-2 selector switch
BA 471003P 16A x C automatic switch
In this part of the diploma project, we consider the economic effectiveness of the application of the introduced microclimate control system of the greenhouse block of the SEC "Agrofirma Kultura."
The cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed according to the following indicators: the size of capital investments, operating costs, annual savings, the payback period of capital investments.
In the course of the diploma project, the following issues were considered: characteristics of the design object, calculation of electrical loads, power selection of power transformers, selection of grade and section of 10 and 0.38 kV VL wires, selection of protective equipment, calculation of grounding devices, protection of the transformer substation from overvoltage. issues of ecology and life safety are considered.
A schematic electrical diagram of the operation of the valves for heating for steam, based on the meter-regulator of the microprocessor TM148, has also been developed. This meter allowed us to automatically open, and close steam heating depending on the temperature in the greenhouse.
The frequency converter KEB CJMBIVERT 10.F5.G1B-3200 was used to open and close the windows in the greenhouse.
The effect of elevated and lowered temperatures is particularly strong under conditions of increased relative air humidity. In general, the goals set for the greenhouse microclimate are met and comply with the norm. The optimal temperature for growing tomatoes is created, which will help to increase yields, and therefore generate additional profit.
The payback period for automation of the greenhouse block microclimate control processes is 2 years.
The decisions made in the diploma project meet the requirements of safety regulations.
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