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Complex mechanization of fodder beet cultivation with the development of harrowing technology

  • Added: 25.01.2022
  • Size: 7 MB
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Description

The main activity of the company is the production of milk. The feed base is fully provided by the enterprise. The machine and tractor fleet is sufficiently well equipped to perform agricultural work.

In the second section, we considered the national economic significance of the cultivated crop.

The third section is devoted to the analysis of the technology of cultivation of the culture used in the enterprise. It is revealed that high costs are made for the cultivation of crops, the yield is unstable over the years and the cost of production is high.

Performing the fourth section, we offer an intensive technology of cultivation of fodder beets. Intensive technology is based on rational tillage of the soil before sowing, which will reduce fuel costs and wages for workers while increasing yields. We have developed a technological map that includes all calculations and compositions of units for performing operations for the cultivation of fodder beets. According to the technological map, a schedule for loading tractors has been drawn up.

Project's Content

Name Size
icon drawing_3.cdw
154 KB
icon drawing_1.cdw
52 KB
icon Диплом Основной.doc
7 MB
icon drawing_2.cdw
41 KB

Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1. Characteristics of the design object

1.1 General information about the farm

1.2 Analysis of machine and tractor fleet operation

1.3 Overview of the CDC

2. National economic significance

3. Analysis of existing technology and organization of fodder beet cultivation

4. Process Part

4.1 Place in crop rotation

4.2 Soil treatment depending on the precursor

4.3 Fertilizer application

4.4 Sowing

4.5 Crop Care

4.6 Retraction

4.7 Preparation of Job Instruction

4.8 Proposed Machine System

5. Calculation of ICC for performing c/c operations

5.1 Initial data

5.2 Agrotechnical requirements

5.3 Calculation of the unit picking

5.4 Selection and substantiation of the method of unit movement on the drive

5.5 Calculation of operating costs

5.6 Quality Control and Evaluation

6. Design Development

7. Economic part

7.1 Calculation of cost of one conditional reference hectare

7.2 Measures to reduce the cost of mechanized field work

8. Safety and Health Requirements for Harnessing

9. Environmental protection

Conclusion

List of used literature

Introduction

Fodder beet is a beautiful juicy food for all farm animals, especially for dairy cattle and pigs. It is well stored; it is used for feeding in autumn, winter and early spring, which allows us to bring the type of feeding closer to the summer diet during these periods.

Fodder beet is relatively poor in protein, but it includes very valuable free amino acids. In terms of the content of fodder units and digested protein, it is inferior to carrots and pants. One of the most valuable in fodder beets is its high carbohydrate content, mainly sucrose. With a dry matter content of 1112%, the amount of carbohydrates is 67%.

The agricultural importance of fodder beets is great. Growing this crop contributes to increasing the fertility of the soil, improves its physical properties, microbiological activity, and reduces field clogging. Fodder beets can grow in quite diverse climatic conditions, but produce the highest yields in warmer areas.

Conclusion

In the first part of our diploma project, we got acquainted with the characteristics of the enterprise, analyzed the main performance indicators for the Kriushinsky SEC. We considered the composition and structure of the machine and tractor fleet, the central repair workshop. The main activity of the enterprise is milk production. The feed base is fully provided by the enterprise. The machine and tractor fleet is well-equipped enough to carry out agricultural work.

In the second section, we considered the national economic significance of the cultivated crop.

The third section is devoted to the analysis of crop cultivation technology used in the enterprise. It was revealed that high costs are produced for cultivating the crop, the yield is unstable by year and the cost of production is high.

Performing the fourth section, we offer intensive technology of fodder beet cultivation. Intensive technology is based on rational soil treatment before sowing, which will reduce fuel costs and wages for workers while increasing yields. We have developed a process plan that includes all calculations and compositions of units for fodder beet cultivation operations. According to the Job Instruction, the tractor loading schedule has been drawn up.

For a more detailed calculation of one of the operations on fodder beet cultivation, the fifth section was compiled, in which calculations of the main parameters of ploughing were made, agrotechnical requirements were considered, quality control of work, a machine-tractor unit was compiled, issues on preparation of the unit and the field for work were considered. The results of the work are summarized into the second sheet of the graphic part .

In the economic section of the diploma project, the cost of one conditional reference hectare is calculated, which is an indicator of the amount of costs for the operation to cultivate an agricultural crop.

We also considered safety and health issues during plowing and environmental protection.

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