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9-storey residential building for 72 square meters. in Donetsk

  • Added: 01.07.2014
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Description

9 storey residential building. Plans, facades, roof, foundations

Project's Content

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Additional information

Contents

General part

1. Design Input:

2. Brief description of functional process and list of main rooms with indication of their areas

3. Structural diagram of the building

4. Space Planning Solution

5. Structural solutions of building elements

5.1. Bases

5.2. Walls

5.2.1. Source Data for Calculation

5.2.2. Find the required heat transfer resistance

5.2.3 Coefficient of thermal uniformity

5.2.4. Determine thickness of heat insulation layer

5.2.5. Wall panel thickness

5.3. Overlappings

5.4. Covering

5.5. Roof

5.6. Stairs

5.7. Windows and stained glass windows - storefronts

5.8. Doors

5.9. Floors

6. Finishing

7. Sanitary, technical and engineering equipment of the building

7.1. Elevator

7.2. Refuse chute

8. Technical and economic indicators

9. List of literature used

General part

The main purpose of architecture has always been to create the life environment necessary for the existence of a person, the nature and comfort of which was determined by the level of development of society, its culture, and the achievements of science and technology. This life environment, called architecture, is embodied in buildings that have internal space, complexes of buildings and structures that organize external space - streets, squares and cities.

In the modern sense, architecture is the art of designing and building buildings, structures and their complexes. It organizes all life processes. In its emotional impact, architecture is one of the most significant and ancient arts. The power of her artistic images constantly affects a person, because his whole life takes place surrounded by architecture. At the same time, the creation of a production architecture requires a significant amount of public labor and time. Therefore, the requirements for architecture along with functional feasibility, convenience and beauty include requirements for technical expediency and economy. In addition to the rational layout of the premises, corresponding to certain functional processes, the convenience of all buildings is ensured by the correct distribution of stairs, elevators, equipment and engineering devices (sanitary appliances, heating, ventilation). Thus, the shape of the building is largely determined by the functional pattern, but at the same time it is built according to the laws of beauty.

Cost reduction in architecture and construction is carried out by rational space-planning solutions of buildings, correct selection of construction and finishing materials, design facilitation, improvement of construction methods. The main economic reserve in urban planning is to increase the efficiency of land use.

Design Input:

A residential building with 72 apartments is located in the city of Donetsk. The residential building belongs to multi-storey residential buildings of the sectional type: The climate of the region is temperate continental .

- depth of soil freezing is 1.2m;

- the relief of the site is calm;

- building class in terms of durability 1

- building class by fire resistance rating 1

- the residential building is equipped with a passenger elevator with a lifting capacity of 320kg, a garbage duct - asbestos cement pipe d = 400 mm

- foundation - cast-in-situ reinforced concrete

- walls - of ceramic concrete panels

- floors and pavements - prefabricated reinforced concrete (coating is made of ribbed reinforced concrete roofing panels).

- fire resistance rating 1.

2. A brief description of the functional process and a list of main rooms with their areas.

The premises of the apartment are divided into two groups: the first is intended for rest, sleep and, possibly, classes (bedrooms); the second for household processes, communication, reception of guests, i.e. for day and evening activity (hall, kitchen, bathroom, toilet).

In the designed house, each apartment consists of the following rooms:

• living rooms,

• kitchen,

• front (corridor),

• bathroom,

•Toilet,

All living rooms are illuminated by natural light, rooms in apartments have separate entrances, the height of the room is 2.70 m.

3. Structural diagram of the building.

This building has a scheme with alternating pitch sizes of transverse bearing walls and longitudinal bearing walls (scheme with mixed wall pitch)

4. Space-planning solution.

This building is of a point type, compact with floor-by-floor grouping of apartments around the elevator assembly with a reserved staircase assembly and garbage duct. On the floor there are 4 apartments (1-1-2-4 rooms). all apartments with corner ventilation. The house has great urban maneuverability. The dimensions of the building are 22.8 m by 12.3 m. The building is 9 storeys, the floor height is 2.8m, the basement height is 2.3m, a cold semi-passable attic with a height of 1.2 m is designed. There is a freight and passenger elevator with a carrying capacity of 320kg and a speed of 1m/s. The building has a garbage duct.

5. Structural solutions of building elements

5.1. Foundation.

The building has a tape-type foundation, the prefabricated foundation laid to a depth of 1.8 m.

5.2. Walls.

Walls of three-layer concrete panels. They have significant advantages over one- and two-layer ones, consisting in increased waterproofness of the facade layer, the ability to change the bearing capacity of the wall in a wide range (due to changing the class of concrete, the thickness of the supporting layer of the plate, or its reinforcement) and its heat-protective qualities (due to the use of insulators of different efficiency and cross section). This makes the construction of the three-layer wall universal.

5.5. Roof.

The roof is rolled with an internal drain.

5.6. Stairs.

The structure of the staircase from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements of the slab structure. The stairwell is planned as an internal day-to-day operation, made of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements. In the entrance assembly, stairs are made of separate concrete set steps. The staircase of two marches with one intermediate platform resting on the staircases. The slope of the stairs is 1:2. From the stairwell there is access to the roof through a metal staircase equipped with a fire-resistant door. The stairwell has artificial and natural lighting through window openings. All doors along the stairwell and in the vestibule open towards the exit from the building. The stairs fencing is made of metal links, and the handrail is lined with plastic.

5.7. Windows and stained glass windows - storefronts

Windows largely determine the degree of comfort in the building and its architectural and artistic solution. Windows are selected according to GOST, in accordance with the areas of illuminated rooms. The top of the windows is as close to the ceiling as possible, which provides better lighting in the depths of the room. The bases of the windows, i.e. the boxes and bindings are made of plastic, which is 4-6 times lighter than steel, they are corrosion-resistant and decorative. Wooden structures of windows are sensitive to changes in air humidity and are susceptible to rotting, and therefore they need to be periodically painted.

5.8. Doors

In this diploma project, the dimensions of doors are accepted according to GOST doors, both internal inside apartments, offices and external reinforced ones. Doors are used both single-floor and double-floor, size: 2.1 m high 1.6; 0,9; 0.7 m wide. To ensure quick evacuation, all doors open outside in the direction of traffic on the street based on the conditions for evacuating people from the building in case of fire. Door boxes are secured in openings to antiseptic wooden plugs embedded in plates during manufacture. For external wooden doors and on staircases in the vestibule - boxes are arranged with rapids, and for internal doors - without a threshold. Door webs are hung on hinges (canopies), allowing to remove open door webs from hinges - for repair or replacement of door webs. To avoid opening the door or flapping, special spring devices are installed that keep the door closed and smoothly return the door to a closed state without impact. Doors are equipped with handles, latches and tie-in locks. Inlet tambour doors are made of double-layer stamped aluminium of corrugated surface. Door boxes are made of stamped aluminum profiles with anchors attached to walls.

5.9. Floors

Floors in residential and public buildings must meet the requirements of strength, resistance to wear, sufficient elasticity, noiselessness, convenience of cleaning. The floor structure is considered as the soundproofing ability of the floor structure plus the soundproofing of the floor structure. Flooring in apartments is accepted from parquet on a heat-insulating base. Mosaic floors are adopted in corridors, vestibules, staircases. The positive aspects of these sexes are their hygienicity and noiselessness. The negative aspects are very labor intensive, which also increases the construction period.

6. Finishing

Exterior decoration: ceramic tiles. Door blocks are painted with oil paints or warm tone enamels. Interior decoration: in apartments, walls are glued with wallpaper after plastering panel walls. Kitchens are glued with washing wallpaper, and sections of walls above sanitary appliances are lined with tile tiles. In san cabins floors made of ceramic tiles. The walls are lined with tiles.

7. Sanitary, technical and engineering equipment of the building.

7.1. Elevator.

For vertical communications, an elevator precast reinforced concrete shaft is provided with the installation of an elevator installation with a lifting capacity of = 320 kg and a speed of 1 m/s. The elevator engine room is placed on the roof, which allows you to reduce the length of the driving ropes by almost three times, simplify the kinematic scheme of the elevator, reduce loads on the load-bearing structures of the building, and abandon the device of a special room for blocks. Thus, the cost of the elevator and operating costs are significantly reduced. However, such an upper location of the engine room is less advantageous for acoustic - noise reasons.

7.2. Refuse chute

The garbage duct at the bottom ends in the garbage chamber with a storage bin. Accumulated garbage in the bunker is poured into garbage carts and immersed in garbage collection machines and taken to the city waste dump. The walls of the garbage chamber are lined with glazed tiles, the floor is metal. In the waste chamber there is a cold and hot water pipe with a mixer for washing the waste duct, equipment and premises of the waste chamber. The garbage chamber is equipped with a drain with water draining into the household sewage system. A heating coil is provided in the floor. At the top, the garbage duct has an exit to the roof to ventilate the garbage chamber and through the garbage collection valves to remove stagnant air from the staircases, as well as smoke in the event of a fire .

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