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Water intake facilities from underground sources

  • Added: 10.06.2023
  • Size: 1 MB
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Description

The choice of the type of structure for receiving groundwater depends on the depth of its occurrence and the thickness of the aquifer. Facilities for receiving groundwater can be divided into four types: water wells; mine wells; horizontal water intakes; bonnet cameras.

Water wells (tube wells) are used to receive non-pressure and pressurized groundwater lying at a depth of more than 10 m. This is the most common type of water intake facilities for water supply systems in cities, rural settlements and industrial enterprises. They are arranged by drilling wells in the ground, the walls of which are fastened with casing steel pipes. As the well is deepened, the diameter of the casing is reduced. As a result, the well acquires a telescopic shape. The gaps between the individual casing pipes are sealed (plugged) with cement mortar. In rocky soils, the walls of wells are not supported by casing pipes. Above the top of the well, a brick, concrete or reinforced concrete chamber is arranged. A filter is installed at the bottom of the well.

Water wells are placed perpendicular to the direction of groundwater flow. Their number depends on the required flow rate and capacity of the aquifer. Depending on the depth of the dynamic water level, it either self-pours out of the wells into the collection tanks, or (with deep bedding) it is pumped out by pumps.

 

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