• RU
  • icon Waiting For Moderation: 7

Transfer of D-144 engine to gas generator gas operation

  • Added: 25.04.2015
  • Size: 4 MB
  • Downloads: 0
Find out how to download this material


The object of the diploma project is the D-442 engine. During the work, an analysis of the economic activities of the GUSP MTS Bashkirskaya was made, an analysis of the existing designs of gas generator plants was developed, the D-442 engine was heat calculated, its power supply system was improved, and design documentation for the manufacture of parts was developed. The economic parameters of engine operation during operation on diesel fuel and wood gas are given. Safety and safety issues have been developed during engine modernization.

Project's Content

icon 1.doc
icon 2 сущ конструкции.docx
icon 3 Модерниз.doc
icon 4 - копия.docx
icon 4.doc
icon 5 БЖД Кудаяров.doc
icon 6.doc
icon Библг.docx
icon введ газоген на дровах -исправл..docx
icon введ газоген на дровах.docx
icon введение.docx
icon задание.doc
icon Заключение газогенер готовое.docx
icon Заключение.docx
icon оглв.doc
icon Отзыв на ДП.docx
icon РЕФЕРАТ.doc
icon рецензия.doc
icon Титульный лист.doc
icon 2.cdw
icon 3.cdw
icon 4.cdw
icon 44.cdw
icon 5.cdw
icon Чертеж_(бак эмульсииА3).cdw
icon Чертеж_(КрышкаА4;).cdw
icon Чертеж_(штуцерА4).cdw
icon Чертеж_1(двойнойА4).cdw
icon Чертеж_2(перегородкаА4).cdw
icon Чертеж_3(втулкаА4).cdw
icon Чертеж_4(крышкаА;).cdw
icon 7.cdw
icon 8 Тех. карта.cdw
icon 9.cdw
icon 298px-Газогенератор_1Б.jpg
icon 300px-Газогенератор_1А.jpg
icon 300px-Газогенератор_2А.jpg
icon 300px-Газогенератор_2Б.jpg
icon 300px-Газогенератор_2В.jpg
icon 399px-Газогенератор_3Б.jpg
icon Снимок.PNG
icon вдп.spw
icon Спецификация.spw

Additional information




1.1 Gas generator of direct gasification process

1.2 TsNIIAT-AG- gas generator

1.3 Gas generators of reverse (overturned) gasification process

1.4 Gas generator GAZ -

1.5 Chamber of NATI-G- gas generator

1.6 Gas generator of the transverse gasification process


2.1 Diagram of gas generator plant

2.2 Fuel for gas generator plant

2.3 Mixer Arrangement and Operating Principle


3.1 Intake Process

3.2 Compression Process

3.3 Combustion process

3.4 Expansion Process

3.5 Engine performance indicators

3.6 Effective engine performance

3.7 Graph of inertial forces

3.8 Plotting tangential forces

3.9 Calculation of connector connection


4.1 Ensuring working conditions and safety at work

4.2 Environmental protection measures

4.3 Measures to protect the population and material assets in emergency situations


5.1 Calculation of tractor conversion costs

5.2 Calculation of the economic effect of the design implementation

5.3 Calculation of payback period


Bibliographic list

Project Description

The work contains: 84 pages, 10 figures, 5 tables, 17 sources, 9 sheets of A1 format of graphic material.


The object of the diploma project is the D442 engine. During the work, an analysis of the economic activities of the GUSP MTS Bashkirskaya was made, an analysis of the existing designs of gas generator plants was developed, the D442 engine was heat calculated, its power supply system was improved, and design documentation for the manufacture of parts was developed. The economic parameters of engine operation during operation on diesel fuel and wood gas are given. Safety and safety issues have been developed during engine modernization.


Relevance of the topic. Internal combustion engines (ICE), today, are the main consumers of fuels of oil origin. With a constant increase in the number of ICE and a decrease in the number of newly discovered oil fields, the problem of insufficient fuels of oil origin worsens. In addition, the environmental situation is significantly aggravated, which is worsened by ICE combustion products.

To solve energy and environmental problems, the use of alternative fuels becomes relevant.

The engine fuel system has been upgraded to use alternative gas generator fuel.

The design shows the calculations of the D442 engine during its operation on diesel and gas-generator fuels.

The purpose and tasks of the work are to reduce the cost of fuel and lubricants using generator gas.

Analysis of production activities of the Dürtyulinsky branch gusp mts "Bashkir"

1.1 General characteristics of the enterprise

1.1.1 History of enterprise development

The State Unitary Agricultural Enterprise Machine-Technological Station "Bashkir" of the Republic of Bashkortostan, hereinafter referred to as the "Enterprise," was created in accordance with Decree of the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan No. UP1 of January 5, 2000 and Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Bashkortostan No. 60 "On the Creation of the State UnUnitary Agricultural Enterprise" Machine Use "Machine"

The new version of the Charter of the enterprise was adopted in connection with bringing the constituent documents into line with the current legislation (Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On State and Municipal Unitary Enterprises" from 14.11.2002. NO. 161FZ).

Company name in Russian: full: state unitary agricultural enterprise "Machine-technology station" Bashkir "of the Republic of Bashkortostan; abbreviated - GUSP "MTS" Bashkir "RB.

The enterprise is a commercial organization not endowed with the right to own property assigned to it by the owner.

The company is departmental subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

The functions of the founder of the Enterprise are carried out on behalf of the Republic of Bashkortostan by the Ministry of Property Relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Bashkortostan according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan.

The enterprise is a legal entity, has an independent balance sheet, settlement and other accounts in banks, a round seal containing its full corporate name and an indication of the location of the Enterprise in the state languages ​ ​ of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The seal of the Enterprise may also contain its corporate name in a foreign language.

An enterprise may have civil rights consistent with the object and purpose of its activities provided for in these Articles of Association and bear the duties related to such activities.

Location of the Enterprise: Ufa, st. Pushkin, 106.

Postal address: 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, st. Pushkin, 106.

The company has branches (separate divisions):

Durtyulinsky branch "Agidel," 452300, Republic of Bashkortostan, Durtyuli, Promzona;

Tuymazinsky branch "Kolos," 452600, Republic of Bashkortostan, Tuymazy, st. Stolyarova, 3;

Chishminsky branch "Dim," 452150, Republic of Bashkortostan, r.p. Chishma, st. Industrial, 18;

Abzelilovsky branch, 453620, Republic of Bashkortostan, s. Askarovo, st. Sorge, 1;

Baymak branch, Republic of Bashkortostan, Baymak, ul. Kuibysheva, 72;

Birsk branch, 452451, Republic of Bashkortostan, Birsk, Mira St., 155;

Miyakinsky branch, 452080, Republic of Bashkortostan, settlement Rodnikovka;

Chekmagushevsky branch, 452250, Republic of Bashkortostan, s. Chekmagush, st. SalavtotD;

Duvan branch, 452530, Republic of Bashkortostan, s. Mesegutovo, st. Industrial, 4;

Karmaskalinsky branch "Niva," 453010, Republic of Bashkortostan, Karmaskalinsky district, village Ulukulev.

Meleuzovsky branch "Zirgan," 453300, Republic of Bashkortostan, Meleuzovsky district, p. Zirgan, st. Sovetskaya, 231.

The powers of the owner of the property of the Enterprise are exercised by the Ministry of Property Relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Bashkortostan in accordance with the legislation and this Charter.

1.1.2. Objectives and activity of the enterprise

The company was established for the efficient operation of agricultural machinery purchased in accordance with contracts; to meet social needs and generate profits.

In order to achieve the objectives specified in Clause 1, the Enterprise shall carry out the following activities in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan:

Execution of mechanized works (tillage, sowing, harvesting, fodder harvesting, fertilizer application, loading and unloading, transport, agro-reclamation, etc.).

Joint production with agricultural producers of cereals, legumes, oilseeds, fodder and industrial crops.

Operation, repair, maintenance and storage of agricultural machinery.

Organization of logistics for the production and technological operation of agricultural machinery.

Provision of services for processing agricultural products, transport, marketing, training and consulting information services.

Construction and reconstruction of industrial and social facilities, housing at the expense of the Company's raised and own funds.

Commercial, commercial, leasing, intermediary activities.

Training and advanced training of specialists in various branches of agricultural production.

Introduction and promotion of new technologies and new agricultural technologies.

The Enterprise shall not have the right to carry out activities not provided for in this Charter, except for activities aimed at creating social and cultural objects and building housing in order to meet the needs of the Enterprise's employees.

Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines and analysis of existing designs for gas generator units

2.1 Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines

The more cars produced in the world, the greater the interest in alternative fuels to gasoline, during the combustion of which less harmful substances are released. In many countries, biological fuels made from plant raw materials are becoming increasingly popular. In six EU states, as well as in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Malaysia, such biological fuel is produced on an industrial scale, but still its share in the fuel balance does not exceed 0.3%.

Currently, the internal combustion engine remains the main driving force of the car. In this regard, the only way to solve the energy problem of road transport is to create alternative types of fuels. The new fuel must satisfy many requirements: to have the necessary raw materials, low cost, not to worsen the engine, to emit harmful substances as little as possible, to combine with the existing fuel supply system, etc.

Today, oil is the main and most sought-after energy resource. However, its reserves are catastrophically ending, and it is already clear that the sunset of the oil era is coming. What will we refuel ?

It is already absolutely clear that the 21st century will be the sunset of the oil era. A decrease in the rate of oil production in a number of countries, including Russia, and a decrease in its profitability is observed today. All this is the root cause of the increase in the cost of petroleum products and, as a result, imposes certain restrictions on the development of the economies of individual countries and the world economy as a whole. This fact, given that 80% of the mechanical energy that a person uses in his activities is generated by internal combustion engines, makes one seriously think about an alternative energy source that is not of oil origin .

Recently, a large number of foreign research centers of motor engineering firms have been conducting research aimed at saving fuel and replacing traditional liquid hydrocarbon fuels with new types.

Consider each of the most common alternative fuels in more detail.

2.1.1 Natural Gas

Natural gas is the most common alternative motor fuel in most countries. Natural gas as motor fuel can be used both in the form of atmosphere compressed to a pressure of 200, gas, and in the form of liquid gas cooled to 160 ° C. Currently, the most promising is the use of liquid gas (propane-butane). In Europe, this fuel is called Liquefied petroleum gas. In Europe today there are about 2.8 million cars operating on Liquefied petroleum gas .

2.1.2 Gas condensate

The use of gas condensates as motor fuel is minimized due to the following disadvantages: harmful effects on the central nervous system, unacceptable sparking during operation with fuel, reduced engine power (by 20%), increased specific fuel consumption.

2.1.3 Mine methane

Recently, mine methane extracted from coal rocks has also become one of the alternative types of automobile fuels. So, by 1990, in the USA, Italy, Germany and the UK, more than 90 thousand cars were working on mine methane. In the UK, for example, it is widely used as motor fuel for regular buses in coal regions of the country. It is predicted that gas production of methane in the coal basins of the world will soon amount to 96,135 billion cubic meters.

2.1.4 Synthetic petrol

The raw material for its production may be coal, natural gas and other substances. The most promising is the synthesis of gasoline from natural gas. From 1 m3 of synthesis gas 120180 g of synthetic gasoline are obtained. Abroad, unlike Russia, the production of synthetic motor fuel from natural gas has been mastered on an industrial scale. So, in New Zealand, at the Mobile plant, 570 thousand tons of motor fuels are synthesized annually from previously obtained methanol. However, at present, synthetic fuels from natural gas are 1.83.7 times more expensive (depending on the production technology) than oil. At the same time, developments in the production of synthetic gasoline from coal are quite actively underway in England.

2.1.5 Alcohols

Among alternative fuels, alcohols, in particular methanol and ethanol, which can be used not only as an additive to gasoline, but also in pure form, should be mentioned first. Their main advantages are high detonation resistance and good efficiency of the working process, the disadvantage is reduced thermal capacity, which reduces the mileage between filling stations and increases fuel consumption by 1.52 times compared to gasoline. In addition, starting the engine is difficult due to poor evaporation of methanol and ethanol.

Ethanol (drinking alcohol), which has high energy value, is extracted from wood and sugarcane waste, provides the engine with high efficiency and low emissions and is especially popular in warm countries. So, Brazil after its oil crisis of 1973 actively uses ethanol - in the country more than 7 million cars are fueled with ethanol and another 9 million with its mixture with gasoline. The United States is the second world leader in the large-scale production of ethanol for the needs of vehicles. Ethanol is used as a "clean" fuel in 21 states, and ethanol-gasoline mixture accounts for 10% of the US fuel market and is used in more than 100 million engines. The cost of ethanol is on average much higher than the cost of gasoline. The surge in interest in its use as motor fuel abroad is due to tax incentives.

The use of alcohols as automotive fuel requires a minor alteration of the engine. For example, to work on methanol, it is enough to adjust the carburetor, install a device to stabilize the engine start and replace some corrosion-prone materials with more resistant ones. Given that pure methanol is poisonous, careful sealing of the vehicle's fuel system should be provided. Methanol vapors are more toxic than gasoline vapors and cause severe poisoning when ingested into the human body, blindness and even death.

But for pure alcohol operation, it is necessary to increase the capacity of the fuel tank and the compression ratio to 1214 in order to fully use the detonation resistance of the fuel.

The low pressure of saturated vapors and the high heat of evaporation of alcohol make it almost impossible to start gasoline engines already at ambient temperatures below + 10 ° C.

2.1.6 Electrical Power

The use of electricity as an energy carrier for electric vehicles deserves attention. The issue of toxicity of exhaust gases is radically resolved, the possibility of using oil to produce chemicals and compounds arises. The disadvantages of electricity as a type of electric carrier include: a limited range of electric vehicles, increased operating costs, high primary cost and high cost of energy-intensive batteries.

2.1.7 Fuel cells

Fuel cells are devices that generate electricity directly on board a vehicle. During the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, water and electric current are formed. As the hydrogen-containing fuel, either compressed hydrogen or methanol is typically used. In this direction, quite a few foreign automobile firms work, and if they eventually manage to bring the cost of fuel cell cars closer to gasoline, then this will become a real alternative to traditional oil fuels in oil-importing countries. Currently, the cost of a foreign experimental car with fuel cells is about $1 million. USA. In addition, the disadvantages of using fuel cells include the increased explosion hazard of hydrogen and the need to fulfill special storage conditions, as well as the high cost of producing hydrogen.

2.1.8 Traditiesel Fuel

In recent years, the United States, Canada, and the EU have increased commercial interest in, and especially in, the technology of vegetable oil production. In the United States, it is planned to replace conventional diesel fuel by 20% and use it on ships, buses and trucks. The use of hybesel is primarily associated with a significant decrease in the emission of harmful substances in waste gases (by 2550%), an improvement in the environmental situation in the regions of intensive use of diesel engines - sulfur in also-diesel fuel is 0.02%.

2.1.9 Biogas

It is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide and is a product of methane fermentation of organic substances of plant and animal origin. Biogas refers to fuels obtained from local raw materials. Although there are many potential sources for its production, in practice their range is narrowing due to geographical, climatic, economic and other factors. Biogas as an alternative energy carrier can serve as a high-calorie fuel. It is designed to improve the technical-operational and environmental performance of the internal combustion engine. The use of biogas as a fuel for internal combustion engines reduces emissions, as well as improves fuel efficiency.

2.1.10 Used oil

Currently, at a number of enterprises around the world, plants that convert waste oil (motor, transmission, hydraulic, industrial, transformer, synthetic, etc.) into a state that allows it to be fully used as diesel or furnace fuel are very effective. The unit mixes the purified (in the unit) oils into the corresponding fuel, in a precisely specified proportion, with the formation of a permanently stable, non-separable fuel mixture. The resulting mixture has higher purity, dewatering and calorific properties than diesel fuel prior to modification in the plant.

2.1.11 Hydrogen as alternative fuel

Hydrogen is an efficient energy accumulator. The use of hydrogen as a fuel is possible under a variety of conditions, which can make a significant contribution to world energy when fossil fuel resources are close to complete depletion. Compared to gasoline and diesel fuel, hydrogen is more efficient and less polluting. The explosion hazard of hydrogen is dramatically reduced with the use of special additives.

Now every car company has a concept car that works on hydrogen. However, some firms offer combined solutions. So, Mazda offers a car that has the ability to alternate fuel (hydrogen and gasoline). Other automakers combine these types of fuels. In the United States, tractors are produced, the engines of which use a mixture of diesel and hydrogen fuel. This allows increasing engine power, environmental cleanliness and reducing fuel consumption. The system decomposes water, collects hydrogen and directs it to the combustion chamber, providing higher fuel combustion efficiency.

2.1.12 Hydrogen fuel

Studies of the Sun, stars, interstellar space show that the most common element of the Universe is hydrogen (in space, in the form of a hot plasma, it makes up 70% of the mass of the Sun and stars).

According to some calculations, every second in the depths of the Sun, approximately 564 million tons of hydrogen are converted into 560 million tons of helium as a result of thermonuclear fusion, and 4 million tons of hydrogen are converted into powerful radiation that goes into outer space. There is no fear that the Sun will soon run out of hydrogen. It has existed for billions of years, and the hydrogen supply in it is enough to provide the same number of years of combustion.

Man lives in a hydrogen-helium universe. Therefore, hydrogen is of great interest to us. The impact and benefits of hydrogen today are very great. Almost all the currently known types of fuels, beyond Alyucheny, of course, hydrogen, pollute the environment. Landscaping takes place annually in the cities of our country, but this, as you can see, is not enough. Millions of new models of cars that are now being produced are filled with fuel that releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases into the atmosphere. Breathing such air and constantly being in such an atmosphere poses a very great danger to health. Various diseases occur from this, many of which are practically untreatable, and even more so it is impossible to treat them, continuing to be in the atmosphere "infected" with exhaust gases.

As for air, an equally important issue has been on the agenda for many years. And if you imagine, at least for a second, that all modern engines will run on environmentally friendly fuel, which, of course, is hydrogen, then our planet will embark on the path leading to an ecological paradise. But these are all fantasies and ideas that, to our great regret, will not soon become a reality.

No matter how much we talk about the positive effect of hydrogen, in practice this can be seen quite often. But still, many projects are being developed, and the purpose of my work was not only a story about Amy's wonderful fuel, but also about its use. This topic is very relevant, since now the inhabitants of not only our country, but also the whole world, are concerned about the problem of ecology and possible ways to solve this problem .

Hydrogen is one of the most common elements on Earth. In the earth's crust, out of every 100 atoms, 17 are hydrogen atoms. It is approximately 0.88% of the mass of the globe (including the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere). If we recall that water on the earth's surface is more than 1,5∙1018 m3 and that the mass fraction of hydrogen in water is 11.19%, then it becomes clear that the raw material for producing hydrogen on Earth is an unlimited amount. Hydrogen is part of oil (10.9-13.8%), wood (6%), coal (brown coal - 5.5%), natural gas (25.13%). Hydrogen is part of all animal and plant organisms. It is also contained in volcanic gases. The bulk of hydrogen enters the atmosphere as a result of biological processes. With the decomposition under anaerobic conditions of billions of tons of plant residues, a significant amount of hydrogen is released into the air. This hydrogen in the atmosphere quickly disperses and diffuses into the upper atmosphere. Having a small mass, hydrogen molecules have a high diffusion velocity (it is close to the second cosmic velocity) and, entering the upper atmosphere, can fly into outer space. The hydrogen concentration in the upper atmosphere is 1∙104%.

Hydrogen has a higher combustion heat of 120 MJ/kg, while gasoline has only 42 MJ/kg. In addition, the only exhaust gas in the combustion of hydrogen is water vapors, which enter into a natural natural water cycle. And, as is known, by electrolysis, hydrogen can again be obtained from water. This closed cycle, which underpins the idea of hydrogen power, makes hydrogen one of the most environmentally friendly fuels (Figure 1).

Obviously, when transport switched to hydrogen fuel, the environmental problems of large cities would be solved once and for all. However, this transition faces a number of challenges, including :

- The need for huge energy costs to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water;

- the need to use special super-hermetic containers for storing and transporting hydrogen, since due to the small size of molecules it has a high penetrating ability;

The need to create a developed network of gas stations in each village and along major highways: hydrogen is the lightest and least dense gas, so a car with a hydrogen engine will have to refuel much more often than in cars with gasoline and diesel engines.

One of the ways to introduce hydrogen on vehicles is to burn it in ICE. This approach is practiced by BMW and Mazda. Japanese and German engineers see this as their advantages .

Only the hydrogen fuel system gives an increase in the weight of the car, while in cars on fuel cells the increase (fuel cells, fuel system, electric motors, current converters, powerful batteries) significantly exceeds the "savings" from the removal of ICE and its mechanical transmission.

The loss in useful space is also less for a machine with a hydrogen ICE (although a hydrogen tank eats part of the trunk in both cases).

This loss could be reduced to zero altogether if you make a car (with ICE) that consumes only hydrogen. But then the main trump card of Japanese and German "schismatics" is manifested.

BMW and Mazda propose to keep in the car the opportunity to drive gasoline (by analogy with the now common dual-fuel gasoline/gas cars).

This approach, according to the plan of car builders, will facilitate the gradual transition of vehicles only to hydrogen power .

After all, a client will be able to buy such a car with a clear conscience even when at least one hydrogen gas station appears in the region where he lives. And he won't have to worry about getting stuck away from her with an empty hydrogen tank.

Meanwhile, serial production and mass sales of fuel cell machines will for a long time be greatly restrained by the small number of such refueling stations. Yes, and the cost of fuel cells is still high .

In addition, the conversion to hydrogen of conventional ICE (with appropriate settings) not only makes them clean, but also increases thermal efficiency and improves flexibility .

The fact is that hydrogen has a much wider range of proportions of mixing it with air, in which it is still possible to set fire to the mixture.

And hydrogen burns more completely, even near the walls of the cylinder, where in gasoline engines usually there is an unburned working mixture.

So we feed hydrogen to the internal combustion engine. The physical properties of hydrogen differ significantly from those of gasoline. Over the power systems, the Germans and Japanese had to break their heads. But the result was worth it.

Shown BMW and Mazda hydrogen cars combine the usual high dynamics for owners of ordinary cars with zero exhaust.

And most importantly, they are much better adapted to mass production than "ultra-innovative" fuel cell machines.

Hydrogen fuel cell

Obviously, if the term "hydrogen motor" is understood to mean an electric one that receives energy from the reaction of a compound of hydrogen and oxygen in fuel cells, then there will be no nitrogen oxides at all. And hydrocarbon fuel "supplies" when burning a whole bouquet of toxic compounds, among which carbon black is far from the most harmful.

Experts associate the "hydrogen future" of vehicles, primarily with fuel cells. Everyone recognizes their attractiveness. No moving parts, no explosions. Hydrogen and oxygen are quietly - peacefully connected in a "box with a membrane" (so easily you can imagine a fuel cell) and give water vapor plus electricity.

Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Nissan and many other companies are flaunting "fuel cell" concept cars and are about to "litter" all with hydrogen modifications of some of their usual models.

Hydrogen gas stations have already appeared in several places in Germany, Japan, and the USA. California is building the first water electrolysis plants using current generated by solar cells. Similar experiments are conducted around the world.

Car manufacturers have taken the first steps towards hydrogen power. In particular, for several years now so-called hybrid cars have been produced, equipped with both a traditional gasoline engine and an electric motor powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.

The hydrogen fuel cell resembles a conventional battery in many ways: in it the energy of the chemical reaction is converted into electrical energy. The principle of its operation is shown in Figure 2.

Hydrogen from a special sealed tank is supplied to a fuel cell consisting of two electrodes (anode and cathode) and a proton-exchange membrane - a material that passes only protons. On an anode made using a noble metal (for example, platinum or its alloys), hydrogen molecules decompose into atoms and lose electrons. The released hydrogen nuclei, that is, protons, begin to move to the cathode through the membrane. Electrons are sent as if "bypassing" the membrane, since it will not pass them. The flow of electrons is the electric current that is consumed by the motor of the car. After passing the engine, electrons enter the cathode. There, in turn, oxygen molecules entering the fuel cell from the atmosphere break down into atoms. Thus, at the cathode there is a simultaneous meeting of oxygen atoms, protons and electrons: this obviously leads to the formation of water molecules that are safely removed to outside the element.

In fact, the fuel cell allows a high-energy reaction

H2 + O2 → H2O,

but not in the form of an explosion, but in a calm, controlled mode .

Honda specialists began to test the first hydrogen prototypes of FCX (Fuel Cell eXperimental) back in 1999. Since then, fuel cell batteries have become much lighter and smaller, and lithium ion batteries have been used instead of nickel batteries. The energy recovery system has also been improved. Moreover, fuel cells have become more heat-resistant: if earlier the minimum temperature to ensure normal operation was 0 degrees Celsius, then the modern FCX Clarity should function properly at 30 degrees.

Fuel for gas generator unit

The production of generator gas can be made from almost solid fuels; wood chunks, coal, straw briquettes, peat, etc. However, each gas generator plant is adapted to work on one type of fuel.

Wood and charcoal include combustible and non-combustible components. Combustible are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, where the combustible substances themselves are carbon and hydrogen. Excess moisture and solid residue formed after combustion of fuel, called ash, are carried to the incombustible part.

A tree of any breed can serve for cooking chunks. A tree of hard species (birch, beech, oak and t.) Has a lot of advantages over a tree of soft species (spruce, sucker, aspen in t., p.). Solid wood rocks during combustion generate more heat, give harder coal, due to which the clogging of both the generator itself and the cleaning plant decreases. The rapid clogging of the plant, in the case of soft wood (especially barely), makes it difficult to suck gas through the plant and causes the need for cleaner cleaning of all instruments and connecting pipes. In addition, a larger amount by weight of hard rock pieces can be loaded into the same volume of the bunker than soft rock pieces, which makes it possible to load the bunker less often during operation.

The shape of the chunks may be ambiguous, but the size of the chunks should be approximately the same. For installation, use 6 X 5 X 5 cuttings..

The use of large chunks impairs the process of gas formation, since chunks can jam in the generator and prevent the smooth and uniform lowering of fuel (as it burns), which will reduce the quality of the gas.

The use of chunks of excessively small sizes is associated with the production of fine coal in the combustion chamber. Because of this, the resistance to the passage of gas increases, and the amount of charcoal fines waking up through the grate into the ash grouse increases. In addition, the cost of cooking chunks also increases.

The humidity of the turtles has a great influence on the operation of the gas generator plant. Fresh chopped wood contains up to 50-60% of water, burns poorly and cannot be used in a gas generator, since the engine power will be greatly reduced and engine start is difficult.

Charcoal used for the initial ignition of the gas generator, after repair or fuel change, shall have a humidity of not more than 10%; the best are considered birch coal. Before loading, the coal must be ground to pieces of about 3 X 3 X 3 cm.

Storage of harvested chunks and coal should be carried out in special, well-ventilated rooms with a serviceable roof and a wooden floor located not lower than 30 cm from the ground. During storage of chunks and coal, fire prevention measures must be observed.

3.4 Thermal calculation of the engine

Source Data:

Ne = 110 kW,

ɛ = 16,5,

= 1,6,

n = 2000 min-1.

The thermal calculation was built according to the method of Bashirov R.M.

Technical and economic indicators of the project

At the moment, diesel fuel costs an average of 32 rubles ./l - this is the purchase price for agricultural producers. And the cost of wood fuel is 4 rubles/l, not taking into account the use of valuable secondary products. Accordingly, the economic effect in this case should be determined based on the difference in the prices of diesel fuel and biofuels. But at the same time, it is necessary to take into account the cost of new equipment and its installation.


Analysis of existing gas generator plant designs was carried out.

As a result of research and comparison of gas generator gas and diesel fuel properties, gas (wood gas) is optimal in composition and properties acceptable for application in harsh climatic conditions. For the received gas, the D424 engine was heat calculated. This calculation shows that when switching to wood gas, the specific fuel consumption increases, the power and the effective efficiency of the engine decreases.

Based on the difference in the cost of diesel fuel and gas, an economic calculation is given that shows a tangible benefit when using gas. In this case, the cost of gas amounted to 4 rubles/l, which is more than several times cheaper than diesel fuel.

Drawings content

icon 2.cdw


icon 3.cdw


icon 4.cdw


icon 44.cdw


icon 5.cdw


icon Чертеж_(бак эмульсииА3).cdw

Чертеж_(бак эмульсииА3).cdw

icon Чертеж_(КрышкаА4;).cdw


icon Чертеж_(штуцерА4).cdw


icon Чертеж_1(двойнойА4).cdw


icon Чертеж_2(перегородкаА4).cdw


icon Чертеж_3(втулкаА4).cdw


icon Чертеж_4(крышкаА;).cdw


icon 7.cdw


icon 8 Тех. карта.cdw

8 Тех. карта.cdw

icon 9.cdw


icon вдп.spw


icon Спецификация.spw

up Up