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Selection of machine complex for drilling piles

  • Added: 30.08.2014
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Topic: Selection of a complex of machines for the installation of bored piles with the development of a working tool

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Additional information

Introduction

Pile foundations over the past few decades have been widely used in Russia. At the same time, however, the main volume of pile worries fell on driven piles.

In recent years, due to the increase in the number of construction projects with large concentrated vertical and horizontal loads, as well as more intensive development of areas and sites with weak and subsidence soils, there has been a tendency to increase the use of bored piles.

Bored piles are used in the construction of subsidence soils in the area of ​ ​ distribution, the construction of high-rise buildings in large cities, the construction of a number of large thermal power plants and the construction of bridges and interchanges.

The principle of producing bored piles, proposed more than 100 years ago by domestic engineers, has now been significantly improved thanks to the development of Russian and foreign scientists.

In Russia, a technology has been developed for the manufacture of drilled piles under the protection of clay mortar, including piles with an enlarged heel, specialized machines have been created for the construction of large-diameter drilled piles and mechanisms have been developed for the arrangement of the heel of padded piles by the method of pressing the widener blades into the ground.

However, the technology of drilling piles is more complex than the technology of driving piles, and therefore more skilled personnel are required to ensure good quality of their manufacture.

Military engineering assessment of the construction area

1.1. General characteristics of the construction area.

Leningrad Region is one of the northwestern regions of the Russian Federation. It is located in the northwest of the East European Plain and adjoins the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea for 330 km.

In the west, the region borders on the Narva River with Estonia, and in the northwest with Finland - these are the state borders of the Russian Federation.

In the south-west, the Leningrad region borders with the Pskov region, in the south and southeast - with the Novgorod region, in the east - with the Vologda region and in the north-east - with the Republic of Karelia. The city of St. Petersburg is the center of the Leningrad Region, but is not part of it, being an independent subject of the Russian Federation.

The relief is flat with traces of glacier activity. Most of the region is occupied by low-lying spaces: the Baltic lowlands, the Prinevskaya, Vuoksinskaya, Svirskaya lowlands, the Priladozhskaya lowlands. The river network is dense, almost all rivers belong to the Baltic Sea basin. The most important rivers - Neva, Volkhov, Svir, Vuoksa, Narva, Sasya, Luga - have significant hydropower resources, are used for navigation and forestry.

Soils are dominated by podzolic and swamp-type soils. Most soils are characterized by excessive humidification, increased acidity and need reclamation.

Forests occupy 54% of the area of ​ ​ the region (pine, spruce, birch, aspen prevail), swamps 11.9%, meadows 3.2%. Total wood reserves 480 million m3.

The population is Russians (92% in 1970), Ukrainians, Finns, Belarusians, Vepsians, Jews, Estonians, Tatars, Karelians. The average population density of the region (with Leningrad) is 65.5 people. At 1sq km.

1.2. Climatic conditions of the construction area.

The climate is transitional from sea to continental. Winter is moderately warm, the temperature of the coldest month of January is from -7 to 11 ° C. Summer is cool, the temperature of the warmest month of July is from 15 to 17.5 ° C. The territory of the region is located in the zone of excessive humidification, the amount of precipitation is 550850 mm per year. Snow cover - 120160 days. Duration of the growing season 150170 days.

Outside air temperature is given in Table 1. Wind direction and speed are given in Table 2.

In the numerator: repeatability of wind directions, in%; denominator: wind speed, m/s.

1.3. Economic assessment of the construction area.

The city of St. Petersburg is one of the most developed cities in Russia. The industry of the city and the Leningrad region is multisectoral in nature. The local raw material base is widely used, there are industries of all-Union importance.

On the territory of the Leningrad Region there is a nuclear power plant located in Sosnovy Boru, 50% of electricity is generated by thermal power plants.

In the region there are large cement plants that produce 4.4% of cement from all-Russian production. There are glass and brick factories, an iron-concrete products plant (ZHBI), mechanical and repair plants, and a steel structure plant.

The main modes of transport: road and rail. The length of the railways is 2.8 thousand km., Almost 1/3 of them are electrified.

Water transport is of great importance in view of the large number of rivers and lakes, as well as the Gulf of Finland. The main role is played by the Baltic Waterway.

The construction area can be assessed as industrialized. Power supply of the facility is provided from DPS, water to the facility is delivered by road.

Analysis of existing methods of drilling piles arrangement and selection of process diagram

2.1. Analysis of existing methods of drilling piles arrangement.

Padded piles after their invention and construction in Russia in 1899 are widely used around the world.

It is advisable to arrange such piles on sites with complex engineering and geological conditions that make it difficult or impossible to use driven piles; on sites with a large thickness of subsidence soils; built-up areas where the immersion of driven piles can lead to deformations of elements of load-bearing structures or equipment. In addition, the arrangement of padded piles eliminates the noise caused by the operation of the hammers.

With the installation of padded piles, the issues of increasing the barrel diameter (up to 1.5 m or more) at a depth of up to 60 m or more are easily solved for transmitting large concentrated loads on them up to 500... 1000 t per pile and more and reinforcing the pile shaft in the design area. Padded piles, as a rule, are arranged for individual projects in accordance with regulatory and instructional documents. At present, in the practice of domestic foundation building, bored-padded piles with and without widening are used.

The technology of making such piles depends on the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the construction site. There are mainly three known methods for the construction of piles: without special measures for fixing the walls of the well; ensuring stability of well walls against collapse by excessive pressure of clay solution or water; with attachment of well walls by non-attractable or inventory casing pipes.

During the construction of buildings on water-dried inhomogeneous clay soils of a fluid consistency with a layer of sands and squeezes, bored piles up to 50 m long can be used using piles - shells. Sometimes such piles are called pipe concrete.

To increase bearing capacity of bored piles, widening is arranged in their base. Such widening is formed by the explosion energy (in this case, the piles are called bored-padded with uflet widening), mechanical drilling of the heel cavity, by pressing soil into the walls of the well, as well as by squeezing a rigid concrete mixture into the base of the well or by driving a group of small piles into the base of the well.

It is recommended to use the method of production of bored piles without attachment of well walls when cutting stable connected soils (clay soils of solid, semi-solid, refractory consistency, including subsidence and swelling); at groundwater occurrence during construction period below pile heel.

Drilled piles are manufactured by dry method in accordance with the process diagram given in Fig.1.

Drilling of wells for piles is carried out by rotary and impact - rope method, using screws, drilling cylinders or hollows. If it is necessary to drill the widening, a widener is attached to the machine instead of the drilling tool. After completion of drilling conductor is installed - formwork with casing branch pipe and rotation of cylindrical badby with slots and folding bottom is cleaned with bottom (bottom of well).

In wells without widening, instead of grinding the bottomhole, it is allowed to compress the base by ramming a layer of crushed stone or rigid concrete with a thickness of 15... 20 cm using a balance bar, bit or vibrostamp. In this case, the walls of the well must be fixed with an inventory casing.

The casing conductor may not be installed in cases where the well head is sufficiently stable, the ground surface is cleaned from loose soil and its sprinkling is excluded, the hopper (hopper) with a concrete-cast pipe rests directly on the ground surface, squeezing the ground at the well head, and reinforcement of the shaft is carried out by separate rods (without clamps) in freshly laid concrete of the pile.

Before concreting, reinforcement frame is lowered into the well, longitudinal rods of which must be extended above the pile top elevation by the length specified in the design. Short reinforcement frames are suspended from conductor. For concreting concrete mixture is fed through funnel (hopper) with concrete-cast pipe with diameter of not less than 273 mm.

The length of the concrete pipe depends on the gap between the lower end of the pipe and the bottom of the well. The clearance prior to concreting shall be within 20... 50 cm.

Concrete mixture is fed into funnel (hopper) directly from auto-concrete mixer or vibrator with sector gate, which is fed by boom crane.

The volume of concrete mixture fed through the concrete pipe shall be sufficient to fill the well with a small excess of the head elevation of the pile to compensate for the decrease in concrete level when the pipe is removed by filling the annulus and shrinkage during hardening.

Concreting of bored piles shall be performed without interruptions. If the borehole concreting is interrupted for 2 hours or more, the concrete cast pipe is left in the body of the pile, and the concreting is completed after delivery of the concrete mixture, regardless of the duration of the break. If during interruption of concreting the concrete pipe is raised above the level of concrete in the well or completely removed, and then the shaft is concreted without cleaning the concrete surface from the sprinkling ground and without reinforcement of the joint, then such pile is recognized as defective and an additional one should be assigned instead.

The method of pile arrangement under protection of clay solution is expedient to be used at penetration of wells in water-saturated unstable soils (clay, soft-plastic and fluid-plastic consistency), which are showered or melted in loose wells.

Bored piles using clay mortar are manufactured in accordance with the process diagram given in Fig.2. Preparation for piling also includes work on the organization of clay farming.

The clay farm consists of an clay stirrer for the preparation of a solution, a mud pump, sumps for pure and spent clay solution and a system of trenches for the discharge of the solution into which it enters through the malt. Runoff is carried out as follows: a trench is dug along the contour of the pit, in which a wooden trough with a section of 40x40 cm is laid with a slope towards the sump 1:100. From each pile bush, the same trough is brought to the main. The volume of sumps for the clay solution is determined based on normal operation without removing the spent solution for 3... 4 days, which is 150... 200 m3. Sumpfs should be placed behind the building spot. Otherwise, they have to be transferred during the work. It is necessary to provide vehicles for the removal of spent solution and the place of its discharge.

Drilling of wells and drilling of widening with the use of water instead of clay solution is allowed in connected soils (loams and clays) only if stability of the walls of the well and the roof of widening is established by experimental manufacture of piles and is due to the design.

Drilling of wells under clay solution is carried out by impact-rope and rotational-suction drilling machines; to drill the widening, the working element is replaced by a widener of a special design.

In order to avoid erosion of the wellhead by the circulating flow of clay solution, in all cases it is necessary to install a conductor or a special container with a casing pipe of long 1... 1.5 m.

The composition of the clay solution is specified by the design and selected in the laboratory depending on the characteristics of the frozen soils and the clay used. The clay solution is prepared from concrete or topical clays. The level of clay solution in the well, regardless of the drilling method, should exceed the level of groundwater by at least 1 m, if there is a casing, if there is no casing, it should be not lower than the well head.

After drilling, the well widening is washed with the same clay solution until the drilling mud is completely removed, but not less than 10 minutes.

Breaks during well drilling, as well as between completion of well drilling and drilling of widening are allowed for not more than 8 hours, provided that the level of clay solution in the well is maintained at the elevation of the ground surface or the bottom of the drain tray.

The interval between the end of drilling of the widening with washing and the beginning of concreting of the pile is allowed for sands and sandy loams for no more than 2, for loams and clays for no more than 4 hours. In case of interruptions of longer duration, with the help of a widener, a control check of widening safety is carried out, as well as repeated washing with clay solution. In case of interruptions of more than 8 hours, the suitability of the well is established by a commission with the participation of a representative of the customer's technical supervision.

The composition of the concrete mixture is also selected in the construction laboratory. It shall meet the requirements of the current GOST for hydraulic concrete. Concrete strength when selecting its composition is accepted by 10% of the design.

Concreting of the widened cavity of the pile shaft is carried out by the method of vertically moving pipe (NRMM). Steel seamless pipes with a diameter of 273... 300 mm are used to supply concrete. The pipes may be solid or assembled from separate sections. It is recommended to use solid pipes at well depth up to 12 m and concrete mixture flow rate up to 4 m3 per pile. When using pipes assembled from separate sections, sealing of all joints is required.

The upper ends of concrete-cast pipes should be equipped with rigid metal funnels (hoppers), to load the concrete mixture, which are made of sheet steel with a thickness of 3... 5 mm with metal binding from angular steel. A platform with a fence and a staircase is attached to the funnel (hopper).

Concreting by the NRMM method is recommended using vibrators fixed on pipes or funnels.

Boom cranes of the required lifting capacity or inventory metal towers with electric winches are used to lift and lower pipes, as well as their extension or shortening. The tower is placed above the wellhead and intended for: filling the funnel (hopper) and pipe with concrete mixture in any working position; lifting and lowering the pipe; pipe retention at removal of upper links; protection of the pipe from horizontal displacements and distortions during concreting; monitoring of concreting mode (filling of pipe, its deepening, etc.).

Mechanisms for lifting and lowering pipes should ensure their vertical movement and the ability to quickly lower the pipe by 50... 100 cm.

When the pipe is initially filled with concrete mixture, plugs, safety valves are used to isolate the concrete mixture from mixing with clay solution or water.

A bottomless metal box with a hole above the discharge tray is installed on the working site above the well head to avoid the flow of clay solution. Concreting is carried out with the release of mortar through the top of the conductor - formwork.

Level of concrete mixture in well and value of pipe deepening are checked by means of standard level gauge or lot lowered into gap between well wall and pipe. Depending on the measurement results, the maximum possible pipe lifting height is set

Intensity of concrete mixture laying shall be not less than 4 m3/h in summer conditions and 5 m3/h in winter conditions, but not less than 4 pog.m. barrel per hour. Breaks in concreting must not be more than 1 hour.

In case of breakout of clay solution or water into the pipe (in case of its careless lifting or insufficient deepening), which is determined by the drop in the level of clay solution or water in the well, concreting should be stopped immediately.

Pile is recognized as a defect if during its concreting a gap was formed between the concrete mixture and the concrete-cast mixture and the concrete-cast pipe and sludge fell into the mixture, and concreting continued without its removal. Reduced bearing capacity of such pile is compensated by device of additional pile.

During concreting of piles by NRMM method it is necessary to ensure intensive and continuous supply of concrete mixture. At the same time, by the end of concreting, clay mortar and contaminated concrete mixture should be completely removed from the well.

A sign of the qualitative completion of concreting is the release of uncontaminated concrete to the surface of the ground with the presence in crushed stone or gravel of the same size as was in the concrete mixture used.

With the installation of bored piles under a layer of clay mortar, a number of technological difficulties arise, and most importantly, the required quality of their shafts is not always ensured. Therefore, instead of mortar, inventory or non-attractable metal casing pipes are used to secure the walls of the well. Well casing depending on conditions of its penetration is performed partially or to the whole depth.

Well is formed by pressing casing pipe with simultaneous extraction of soil from its internal cavity. The pipe is pressed with the help of hydraulic jacks, which communicate to it rotary - translational movement, which greatly facilitates its immersion.

Soil is extracted from the well by rotary and percussion-rotary drilling installations. This method is only useful when unsustainable watered soil with hard layers and inclusions occurs during drilling.

The presence of casing pipes does not exclude the influx of groundwater into the well. In some cases, it is necessary to pass sands - swimmers, which, having great mobility, rise up the casing and interfere with work. To prevent this phenomenon, water is poured into the casing pipe, which allows creating hydrostatic pressure and preventing the flow of sand - floating into the pipe. In this case, the well is concreted by the NRMM method, and the casing is removed so that its lower end is buried in the concrete layer at 1.5... 2.0 meters. Well walls are fixed with casing pipes in some cases not to the whole height, but only within unstable part of soil.

To secure the lower part of the well, the latter is drilled with a slightly larger diameter than that of the casing. Casing pipe (non-attractable or inventory), which is filled with concrete, is lowered into the produced well to the very end.

Weak soils can be found at any depth of the formed well. If the walls of the well are not stable along the entire length, the well is first drilled without a casing. Diameter of formed well is made slightly larger than that of casing pipe. Then pipe to well bottom is filled with concrete and, if necessary, it is removed by crane.

When it is known that weak soils are located in the lower part of the well, it is first drilled without a casing. Then it is inserted into drilled section of well. Then pipes are submerged by weight loading of drilling rig working member.

In cases of location of weak soils only in upper parts of wells, wells are drilled using casing pipe only within the area of weak soils. The casing is then removed by means of a hydraulic puller which works in conjunction with the inventory casing and the vibrator. It is also possible to fix the walls of wells with reinforced concrete rings, most of which have the same dimensions of outer diameter as metal pipes, but their cost is several times less than the latter.

Bored piles of increased bearing capacity in complex engineering and geological conditions can be arranged using piles - shells, widely used in transport construction. Pile-shells are immersed in the soil in one of three ways: without sampling soil from the shell, with sampling soil, as well as in pre-drilled wells.

In order to immerse the pile according to the first method, it is not necessary to produce a soil core inside the shell. Impact or vibration mechanisms are used to immerse such shells. This method is used to penetrate homogeneous weak soils, if it is presented without violating the strength of the pile shaft to form and compress the ground core.

When penetrating inhomogeneous soils with solid clusters in complex engineering and geological conditions, in which the shell piles experience significant resistance from the soil, it is recommended to immerse them with removal of soil from its cavity. In these cases, the piles are immersed by means of a ring vibrator having an opening for immersion of the working member producing soil inside the shell. With this method, large frontal and lateral stresses can occur.

The strength of the shell in this case is determined by loads not from the structure. And from the resistance of the soil. This leads to an excessive increase in the strength of the pile body. This disadvantage does not have a method of immersing pile shells in pre-drilled wells. At the same time, it is possible to easily plug the bottom of the pile - shell into dense soil, as well as arrange a concrete plug or widened heel.

To increase the bearing capacity of the pile on the ground and to more fully use the strength characteristics of the material, the pile base is widened or compacted. If necessary, do both.

For the arrangement of pile widening, special devices are used - wideners. The working member of such devices are cutting or pressing type wideners. Wideners of the first type are equipped with knives, and during the process of formation of the widening cavity, developed soil is supplied to the surface continuously or cyclically.

The device of the widening cavity and its shape depend on the direction of opening of the cutting working elements, as well as on the location of the rotation hinges make it possible to open the working elements upwards. The obtained widening cavity has the form of a truncated cone. This shape is particularly useful in the development of incoherent soils when the stability of the formed backslopes is provided by a clay solution.

The expander with the lower arrangement of the pivot joints can form a spherical arch with an adjacent base in the form of an inverted cone. It is advisable to use wideners of this type only in connected soils, since vaulting of the soil during the development of disconnected soils, even with fixation with clay solution, is more dangerous than reverse slope.

For a number of soil conditions, it is advisable to arrange widening by the indentation method. For this purpose it is possible to use a hydraulic pile widener or a mechanical pile widener.

2.2. Process Diagram Selection

Based on the geological conditions of construction, piles will be erected using casing pipes.

where i1 - removal of vegetable layer;

i2 - preliminary layout;

i3 - base device;

i4 - laying of road slabs;

i5 - drilling;

i5 "- removal of seized soil;

i6 - installation of valves;

i7 - concreting;

i8 - a passage of the pit for the pit.

The following works shall be performed prior to the start of drilling piles installation:

- the axes of supports and piles in the pile field are broken and fixed on the ground;

- a platform of reinforced concrete PAG slabs is arranged along the sand base for parking and moving the drilling rig;

- the internal surfaces of the sections of inventory casing pipes are cleaned from adhered soil and cement milk.

Due to the close location of bored piles in each "semi-support," the arrangement of bored piles, in the base of intermediate supports, should be carried out alternately in each "semi-support," according to the diagram of Fig.5.

The well is drilled under the protection of the casing included in the drilling rig equipment package. Casing consists of sections with length of 1, 2 and 3 meters and cutting tip. The cutting tip is mounted on the lower flange of the first casing section.

Drilling of wells is carried out by rotary method of drilling and begins with drilling of well with casing pipe, connected to rotor of drilling rig, until pipe is submerged to depth of 2... 2.5 m, which ensures required verticality of well.

Soil plug is removed from casing by short flights of drilling screw secured on telescopic rod of installation. Further immersion of casing is carried out due to reciprocal motion created by means of casing table.

After the first casing section is submerged, drilling of the well continues to a depth equal to half the length of the next casing. The working member is removed from the well, the casing is grown and submerged to the depth of the bottomhole.

In a similar sequence, the well is penetrated to the design elevation.

When the working member of the drilling machine reaches the design mark, the casing diving stops in order to avoid soil loosening in the bottom hole. The depth of penetration is monitored by means of an on-board computer located in the cockpit of the drilling rig.

Selection of machine complex

Based on the process flow chart, we will select a set of machines.

Source Data:

1. The dimensions of the platform for the bridge support arrangement are 25x25 m;

2. The diameter of the well is 1500 mm;

3. Well depth - 23 m;

4. Deepening for one penetration - h = 1... 1.5 m;

5. Volume of soil extracted from the well in one penetration - Vgr = 2.64 m3;

6. Total soil volume extracted from one well - Vgro = 34.5 m3.

3.1. Cutting of vegetable layer

The site size is 25x25 m.

, m3;

where is the thickness of the vegetable layer, = 0.25 m.

For comparison, we calculate two bulldozers DZ110 and DZ384. At the present cost of a car hour, we will choose the brand of a bulldozer:

, RUB/m2;

where - the cost of the machine hour of the bulldozer (719.95 rubles for DZ110 and 1700.81 rubles for DZ384); [ ].

- operational hour capacity of the bulldozer.

Operational hour capacity of the DZ-110 bulldozer:

, sq.m/h.

where - norm of time, h, =1.4 h on the area of S=1000 sq.m of (ENiR 2-1-5).

sq.m/h.

When bulldozers work in overwetted soils in which tractor caterpillars are skidded or knitted, N. vr. and Racz. multiply by 1.15. (E2122).

RUB/m2.

Operational hourly capacity of DZ-384 bulldozer:

where = 1.3 h per area S = 1000 m2 (ENiP 2-1-5).

sq.m/h.

RUB/m2.

At the minimum present cost of the machine hour, we choose the bulldozer DZ110.

Cutting of vegetable layer by bulldozer 156.25 m3.

Planned - accounting cost of the machine - hours of operation of the bulldozer, C = 719.95 rubles.

Find a replaceable bulldozer performance:

, sq.m / see.

Where is the time utilization factor, = 0.8 (E2 Annex 4);

m2/cm;

Determine the duration of bulldozer operations:

,

where is the area of the pit being developed along the top.

see;

The bulldozer will cut off the vegetable layer in 1 shift.

We will determine the cost of the bulldozer:

, rub;

we take equal to 1.

rub

The vegetation layer is not exported - it is stored near the site for subsequent laying near the finished bridge support.

3.2. Base arrangement

Calculate the required sand volume for the sand treatment device:

, m3;

where is the thickness of the sand layer, = 0.15 m.

m3.

Sand is delivered from the village of Manushkino, Vsevolozhsk district (transport shoulder 20 km.).

Let's choose a car dump truck at the present cost of a car hour between two dump trucks: MAZ 5516030 and KamAZ55111.

Category I road - roads with improved pavement (ENV p. 19, Table 14).

Bulldozer hourly capacity in sand leveling:

We determine the number of machines necessary for the removal of sand from the quarry. For the installation of the base, 93.75 m3 is required - one machine will transport the necessary amount of sand per shift.

3.3. Calculation of crane for laying of road slabs, supply of casing pipes and reinforcement frames.

PAG14 plates are used for the base device.

Dimensions:

- in plan - 2x6 m;

- thickness - 14 cm.;

- weight - 4.2 t.

Casing pipes with a length of 1.2 and 3 m, weighing 4.5, 3 and 1.5 tons, respectively, are used.

Armocarkas 12 m long, and weighing 1.5 tons.

1. Design lifting capacity of crane Q is calculated by the expression:

where Rk - the mass of the mounted design, t;

Rgp - weight of load-gripping (mounting) devices, t;

Rmo - the mass of erection facilities, t; we take Pmo = 0;

Top - weight of reinforcing devices, t; we accept Rup = 0.

I take the four-branch sling 4SK - 5/4300 (weight 100 kg, height 4.3 m) as load-gripping devices.

Value of Q value:

- for plates Qp = 4.2 + 0.1 = 4.3 t;

- for casing pipes Qo = 4.5 + 0.1 = 4.6 t;

- for reinforcement pockets Qa = 3 + 0.1 = 3.1 t.

The maximum lifting height of the hook will be when the reinforcement frames are supplied to the well and will be equal to H = 12 + 4.3 = 16.3 m.

Calculation of self-propelled boom crane hook departure is determined by graphoanalytic method using Fig.7.

Based on the size and weight of casing pipes and armocarkas, we accept the valve RDK - 250-2 with an boom of 22.5 m.

3.4. Drilling and removal of seized soil.

According to the initial data for one penetration, the screw is buried by h = 1.5 m, then the volume of seized soil for the same penetration:

Let's choose an excavator to remove the seized soil.

Let's select the excavator at the present cost of the machine hour by comparing two excavators EO4121 and EO3322.

Operational hour capacity of excavator EO-4121:

Comparing the capacity and the cost of the machine-hour of two excavators, it is more advisable to accept EO4121, but since drilling one well takes about 20 hours (associated with cleaning working equipment, building casing, etc.) we accept at least the cost of the machine hour EO - 3322.

MAZ 5516030 will be used for soil removal.

3.5. Pile concreting.

1. Concreting layers view is horizontal.

2. We define the areas of concreting layers:

3. Based on the concrete technology, the height of the concrete column in the well at each stage shall not be less than 2 m higher than the total length of the removed casing sections. Then the maximum thickness of the concreting layer is m;

4. We calculate the volume of concrete mixture in the layer:

where is the start time of concrete mix setting; we take = 2 h;

- transportation time of concrete mixture determined by formula:

9. We will determine the number of concrete mixers required to ensure the continuous flow of the concrete mixture and their cost.

3.6. A passage of a pit under a pit.

The passage of the pit will be produced by the excavator EO - 3322.

Vgr soil volume = 1х7х18.6 = 130.2 m3.

Operational hour capacity of the excavator EO-3322:

, m3/h.

where =3.2 hours on 100 m3 of soil (E2111 of page 37).

Cost of works:

3.7. Grout concreting.

1. View of foundation slab concreting layers is inclined.

2. We define the areas of concreting layers:

, sq.m;

where is the thickness of the pedestal, = 1 m;

- inclination angle of concreting layer to horizon equal to 20 °;

- width of the pedestal, = 7 m.

sq.m;

3. Assign concreting thickness m to one layer;

4. We calculate the volume of concrete mixture in the layer:

6. We calculate the concrete mixture flow:

8. We will determine the cost of the work of the car concrete pump, if the cost of the machine hour of its work Smash.h. = 218.6 rubles/h.

,

rub.

9. We will determine the number of concrete mixers required to ensure the continuous flow of the concrete mixture and their cost.

We will find the required number of concrete mixers.

Per hour, the vehicle mixer makes

where = 95.25 rub ./h - the cost of the machine hour of the work of the vehicle mixer per 100 liters for loading, since the volume of the mixer is 7 m3, then the cost of the machine hour of the vehicle mixer will be:

Drilling Tool Design

Soil destruction during drilling occurs simultaneously by cutting under the action of the Rokr circumferential force and pressing under the action of the feed force to the bottomhole Q. Since the feed force to the bottomhole is not large - it is not taken into account during calculations. Soil cutting during drilling, unlike cutting during the operation of other earth-moving machines, has the following features:

- movement of drill cutters in circumference;

- closed volume of bottomhole zone;

- different path of each cutter and, as a result, different width of wear platforms;

- variable angle of inclination of cutters trajectory to horizontal depending on distance to axis of rotation;

- presence of constant mass of soil drawing in bottom-hole zone.

To find the diameter of the rod dc, it is necessary to calculate it for torsion. The calculation of the shaft operating on torsion is carried out according to permissible stresses [αcr], usually equal to 0.6οand. Rod fabrication material - Steel 20. αand = 75 MPa.

Calculation is made according to the formula:

Maximum torque developed by the base machine Rocker = 225 kNm. But when drilling, only half of the maximum develops and is equal to Rocre = 115 kNm.

Then the diameter of the bar will be:

Energy calculations

The correct determination of loads is essential: it is necessary to select the number and power of electric energy sources, the number of supply lines and their sections, equipment of high-voltage and low-voltage switchgears.

Each individual consumer is characterized by nominal parameters at which it is intended to operate for a long time. These parameters, for example, rated power (active Pn or full Sn) and rated power factor cos¼ n, are given in the catalogs, as well as indicated in the certificate of each consumer and on the plates of electrical machines, transformers and other electrical equipment. It should be borne in mind that for current collectors of different nature, the installed power Pu is not determined in the same way.

Site Power Consumers:

1. Welding machine COMBI 132 TURBO, P = 3.6 kW;

2. Equipment for drilling equipment washing with water heating DELVIR PH 3050, P = 15 kW;

3. Lighting.

Searchlight is used to illuminate construction sites and other open spaces. We accept the spotlight spotlight CCD-35 with an incandescent lamp of 150 W.

Calculation of the number of spotlights required to illuminate the open area S m2 is made according to the formula:

According to the task, the fleet is powered by a diesel power plant. Let's pick the DES.

Power loads are calculated using the tabular method.

Table 3.

The value of the demand coefficient kc and cosetais determined by application 24 [].

From the table we find the design power active and reactive loads of the construction site:

According to the full design power, we accept EDDs - 20 - AC with a capacity of 20 kW.

Fundamentals of equipment operation and repair

High performance, maximum service life and plant safety require proper management and maintenance.

Daily or every 8 hours:

1. Engine crankcase - oil level check.

2. Cooling system - check of coolant level.

3. Hydraulic system - level check in hydraulic tank

4. Condition of the machine - bypass around the machine and external inspection

5. Lifting devices - visual inspection

6. Cross joint - lubrication and check

7. Indicators and instruments - check

8. Emergency Shutdown - Check

9. Pile-piercing equipment:

- lubrication of the pile head after every two hours of operation;

- lubrication of hammer guides;

- lubrication of linings of guides of the housing and impact rod, eyes of impact cylinder;

- check of damper pad wear by clearance measurement.

10. Drill - sucker rod equipment:

- lubrication of drilling drive guides;

- lubrication of table hinges - blanker;

- check of condition of splined slots of drive bushings of drive of boring splines rotation - rod;

- check of transmission oil level in drilling drive;

- check of drilling tool condition.

11. Screw equipment:

- lubrication of drilling drive guides;

- check of transmission oil level in drilling drive;

- inspection of cutting tool and maintenance of screw cleaner.

12. Screw pile with lost tip:

- lubrication of drilling guide drive;

check of transmission oil level in drilling drive;

- lubrication of flushing pipe guides;

- lubrication of hinge joint of pipe hydraulic clamping;

- check of the lift.

13. Hydraulic vibrator:

- lubrication of vibrator guides;

- check of oil level in eccentric scales housing;

- lubrication of clamping device hydraulic pusher through lubricant press.

Every 40 hours (weekly):

1. Perform engine maintenance, refer to engine operating manual

2. Lubrication of base machine cylinder hinges

3. Lubrication of hinges of barrel cylinder - rake bar

4. Lubrication of journals of pile/pipe grips joints

5. Lubrication of bottom surface of horizontal slider

6. Lubrication of stabilizers

7. Lubrication of shear lifting mechanisms hinges

8. Lubrication via upper, intermediate and lower boom sliders

9. Lubrication of ring bearings of support-turning device

10. Lubrication of gear rim of support-turning wheel

11. Check of rope unit bearings condition

12. Check of condition and lubrication of cables

13. Check and adjustment of caterpillar sliders clearances in the guides of the bogie housing

14. Lubrication of track guide slides

15. Battery cleaning and electrolyte level check

16. Check of bearings condition on rope lift height limiter

17. Check of track actuators lubrication level

18. Check of turning drive oil level

19. Electron angular meter is calibrated.

Monthly:

1. Grease the respective parts of the palispast units through the oil press

2. Replacement of drilling drive oil

3. Hydraulic oil is replaced with new oil or filtered

4. Hydraulic tank cleaning

5. Replacement of filter elements of hydraulic system

6. Check of pressure values and adjustment of pressure limitation valves

7. Check of actuators operation

8. Check of flexible hoses and connections

9. Check of hydraulic equipment attachment

10. Cladding of hydraulic oil cooling radiator jacket

11. Check of support-swivel device fasteners and tightening, if necessary

12. Check and adjustment of winch brakes

13. Check of track actuators lubrication level

14. Check of turning drive oil level

15. Tightening of caterpillar bolts

Every 100 hours of operation:

1. Check of track actuators lubrication level

2. Check of turning drive oil level

3. Tightening of caterpillar bolts

4. Check of support-swivel device fasteners and tightening, if necessary

5. Cleaning of hydraulic oil cooling radiator jacket

6. Cleaning of air filter element

Every 500 hours of operation

1. Engine maintenance is performed according to engine operating manual

2. Replacement of filter elements

Every 1000 hours of operation

1. Replacement of drilling drive oil

2. Hydraulic oil is replaced with new oil or filtered

3. Hydraulic tank cleaning

4. Replacement of filtering elements of hydraulic system

5. Replacement of oil of caterpillar drives

6. Rotation Drive Oil Replacement

7. Tightening of fastening joints of support-rotary device

8. Hydraulic Tank Sapoon Replacement

9. Drain sediment from fuel tank sump

10. Lubricate door hinges

11. Lubricating the top surface of the horizontal slider

12. Replacing Air Filter Element

13. Replacement of sealing collars and support rings of upper and lower ends of rod and piston of hammer driven cylinder.

Every 1500 hours of operation

1. Engine maintenance

2. Replacement of filter elements.

Hydraulic Oil Replacement

The oil is replaced with a new oil (or filtered) after the first 100 hours of operation. The second replacement or filtration of hydraulic oil is performed every 1000 hours of operation.

If the hydraulic system is damaged or contaminated, replace or filter the hydraulic oil and clean the collection tank. If water is found in the oil, the oil is replaced and the filter with the water separator is installed for 24 - 48 hours of operation. Whenever hydraulic oil is replaced or cleaned, the oil filter bodies are cleaned and charged with new filter elements.

Protection of personnel from WMD

7.1. ZOMP activities.

The threat of the use of nuclear, chemical and bacterial weapons by the enemy is increasing. All weapons are a real threat to human life and to the exploitation of technical means. In order to prevent human damage, it is necessary to carry out measures to protect against WMD.

The development of issues of protection against WMD of subdivisions in the performance of work by the designed complex of machines includes:

1. Assessment of the possible nature of the damaging effect on the specified equipment and the location of the units.

2. Determination of the need to disperse protected forces and assets in a given area.

3. Development of proposals on content and procedure of protection measures against WMD in different conditions.

4. Planning of works on radioactive contaminated area.

7.1.1. Development of protection against WMD.

A) Assessment of the possible nature of the damaging action.

The specified construction area is located in the northern part of Russia, near the state border, near the regional city of St. Petersburg. And since this city is the northern capital of Russia, and its cultural center, this poses a threat to both the city and the construction area. According to the wind rose, the radioactive cloud will be sent from St. Petersburg to the construction area.

B) Determination of the need to disperse protected forces and means.

When resolving this issue, it is necessary to take into account the following circumstances:

- no one has the right to change the location of work areas on the ground, as this is provided for by the design decision;

- work is carried out in accordance with the schedule of work shifts and it is necessary to ensure uninterrupted operation at the facility;

- dispersal can be used only for resting shifts and machines under repair, when they are within the limits of nuclear damage. In other cases, dispersal is provided for all units during radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination of the area of ​ ​ location.

In accordance with this, we decide on the location of temporary camps, dispersal beyond possible nuclear centers of destruction and the establishment of routes for the advance of forces and means in places of dispersal.

c) Development of proposals on the content and procedure of WMD activities.

To develop these proposals, we compile a list of measures to protect against WMD for the action of personnel in a certain situation.

In peacetime:

1. equipment of fast-moving shelters and shelters for personnel and equipment in the area of construction and anti-radiation shelters in the area of ​ ​ dispersal sites and in places of work.

2. Development of calculation of use of shelters or shelters by personnel of subdivisions and periodic check of knowledge of this calculation by people.

3. Equipment, if necessary, of additional sources in the area of dispersal, primarily of shaft and tubular type, having natural filtration. In the presence of water sources of this type, their equipment is produced in order to prevent the penetration of CW, RV, BS into them.

4. Creation of stocks of individual protective equipment for the personnel of the units.

5. Training of personnel on methods of using individual protective equipment.

6. Organization of warning systems for subordinate units on the threat of enemy attack and warning with the use of WMD, with the development of appropriate signals and the procedure for their transmission through all channels.

When receiving a signal about immediate threat of WMD use:

1. Urgent training and shelter of shift personnel in shelters in accordance with the calculation.

2. Provide all personnel and their families with personal protective equipment.

3. Send an enemy attack alert signal over all communication channels.

4. Distribution of personnel of free shifts.

5. Preparation of means of medical care.

When switching to high availability:

1. Urgent preparation of shelters and shelters and use for the intended purpose.

2. Accommodation of food and equipment left at the site, including TSM.

3. Issue of personal protective equipment to personnel and their families.

4. Send a warning signal on the threat of enemy attack through all communication channels.

5. Readiness of RCBZ forces and assets.

6. Organization of registration of radioactive exposure of people in subdivisions.

7. Distribution of personnel of free shifts.

In addressing the effects of WMD:

1. Conduct observation of personnel and animals, and related quarantine measures.

2. Detection of radiation, chemical and bacteriological situation.

3. disconnection of fuel, gas, electric power supply for all consumers.

8. Environmental and occupational safety measures.

8.1. Environmental protection activities.

The performance of work on construction sites significantly affects the state of the environment. Insufficient technical level of construction equipment operation, absence of mechanized and automated filling and organized collection of spent oils, lead to contamination of TSM soil, surface runoff (rain and meltwater) and eventually their ingress into water bodies.

The incorrect organization of construction, the absence of access and on-site roads with a hard surface lead to accelerated water erosion of soils (increase in the cost of construction), as well as wear and tear of machines and mechanisms, to the loss of construction material. Non-compliance with the established technical requirements during transportation and storage of construction materials entails contamination of soil (soils), roads, construction sites and subsequent drainage of these contaminants into reservoirs.

Increasing use of chemicals such as various additives to concrete (anti-frost, retardants and setting accelerators, plasticizers), various polymer resins, organic solvents, varnishes, synthetic paints and other harmful substances, increasing the risk of adverse effects of construction on the environment. Elementary mismanagement also plays a significant role here.

Construction sites are a source of contaminated water, as a result of water consumption for concrete and mortar preparation, painting and washing of premises, cooling of engines of units and process plants, heat supply, power supply to boiler houses and other facilities, washing of machines and mechanisms, development of soil by hydraulic methods.

Environmental measures during work on the construction site should be carried out in the following areas:

1. reducing air pollution;

2. protection and rational use of water resources, land (territories), soil, vegetation and wildlife;

3. fighting noise.

To reduce air pollution at the construction site, the following measures are useful:

- reducing the concentration of toxic substances in the emissions of construction equipment, transport and technological processes by adjusting the ICE fuel equipment, which reduces the toxicity of emissions many times;

- cleaning of exhaust gases of engines from incomplete combustion products (carbon monoxide, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, etc.) with the help of dry or liquid catalytic converters, which provides reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by 70%, aldehydes by 80%, hydrocarbon by 70%;

- use of less toxic fuel, in particular natural gas, for ICE, transport and technological processes (excluding the content in emissions) of lead and sulfur, reduced by 3045 times carbon monoxide, by 3-4 times nitrogen oxides);

- replacement of ICE with electric drive and wide introduction of electric power for technological needs (preparation of materials, thawing of frozen soil, drying of premises, heating of water, etc.).

- reduction of the number of technological operations performed directly on the construction site;

- elimination of the use of stations on the construction site for their replacement with various heating devices using electric power, hot water and air, electrical appliances;

- reduction of air erosion of soils (soils), reduction of earthworks duration and restoration of vegetation cover;

- elimination of open delivery, loading, unloading and storage of bulk dusting materials (sand, lime, cement, gypsum).

Protection of water bodies and rational use of water resources is carried out in construction production as a result of the following measures:

- Stopping the washing of construction equipment and vehicles in and near open ponds;

- exclusion of waste water discharge without treatment;

- organization of collection of spent oils from construction equipment and their delivery;

- Compliance with requirements for combating water erosion of land, including the protection of riparian rivers and reservoirs;

Soil protection: on the construction site is carried out using the following measures:

- during earthworks, the soil layer is previously removed and preserved with its subsequent use for reclamation of the built-up area, landscaping and improvement of soil quality;

- Elimination of the movement of equipment and transport along virgin lands, which destroys the dernina and creates conditions for water and air erosion;

- prevention of soil layer contamination by building wastes, its mixing with deep non-fertile rocks, fuel and lubricants;

- preventing the arrangement of posts that create conditions for burnout of the soil layer;

- application of maximum possible measures to reduce the amount of waste and losses in construction;

- ensuring rational use of stone, gravel, sand, clay, peat and other resources obtained simultaneously during construction works.

In order to reduce the harmful effects of construction work on vegetation and fauna, the following measures should be taken:

- dispose of vegetation under agreements with local authorities, for example, as ready planting material for landscaping, erosion control measures;

- take measures against possible fires;

- to prevent cases of poaching of construction organization employees.

To reduce site noise, the following measures shall be taken:

- transfer construction equipment to electric drive, and internal engines to gas fuel;

- use silencers for engines and small mechanization devices;

- use construction machines on pneumatic and arched tires instead of caterpillar travel;

- improve the quality of access and internal roads;

- replace the sound alarm with a radiotelephone;

These activities are not only economically but also environmentally effective. They provide the following economic and economic benefits:

- decrease of fuel consumption due to its complete combustion at correct adjustment of fuel equipment, ICE;

- reduction of operating costs due to reduction of motor resource consumption and improvement of machine operation at transfer of construction machines from internal combustion engine to electric drive;

- decrease of operating costs due to reduction of oil consumption by 1.52 times, increase of ICE service life by 2-3 times, power supply systems by 3-4 times, increase of overhaul period, decrease of fuel cost when switching ICE, SDM and transport to gas fuel;

- reduction of costs for operation of transport and reduction of losses of transported goods with timely and high-quality arrangement of access and internal roads;

- reduction of material losses and reduction of costs for transportation and loading-unloading operations during organization, storage, loading and transportation of dusty, bulk materials;

- reduction of TSM expenses at organization of mechanized filling of construction equipment and collection of spent oils;

- reduction of construction cost with compliance with the technology and quality assurance of the performed works, which exclude remodeling and waste generation.

8.2. Occupational safety measures.

1. Installation, removal and movement of the drilling rig shall be performed under the direct supervision of the person responsible for safe execution of the specified works.

2. Installation, removal and movement of the drilling rig at wind speed of 15 m/s and more (or thunderstorms) is not allowed.

3. Before lifting the drilling rig structures, all elements must be fixed and the tool and loose items removed.

4. The control of the drilling rig requires the presence of only one operator, who is fully responsible for its operation. The definition of the work area, the installation of safety signals and the restriction of access to the work area of unauthorized people are assigned to linear engineering workers.

5. The main safety provisions for the operator and maintenance personnel are described in the operating manual of the drilling rig.

6. The technical condition of the rig shall be checked before starting each shift.

7. When submerging and removing casing pipes, persons not directly involved in the performance of these works shall be at least one and a half times the height of the drilling rig.

8. Prior to inspection or maintenance, the rig shall be set to a stable position and the engine shall be shut down.

9. Drilled wells in case of shutdown shall be covered with shields or fenced. Warning signs shall be installed on boards and fencing.

10. In the case of joint operation of the drilling rig and lifting crane, measures to ensure the safety of the work should be carried out and a work permit should be issued.

9. Technical - economic indicators of the decisions made.

In this section, we calculate the cost of producing the screw and compare it with the cost in the store.

For the production of the screw, Steel 20, Steel 09G2S and OZN electrodes are used - 6 ø 4.0 mm.

Cost of materials:

1. Steel 20 - 24.5 thousand p.p./ton;

2. Steel 09G2S - 27 thousand p.p./ton;

3. Electrode OZN - 6 ø 4.0 mm - 43 p. 77 K. per kg.

Steel costs should be increased by 30% due to production waste. Then the cost of steel will be 66,300 rubles.

Let's calculate the required number of electrodes.

The weld area is

Costs per worker:

- welder's salary - 30 t.r.;

- salary of locksmith - 25 t.r.;

- operating mode - 8 hours per shift;

- duration of work - 2 weeks.

We receive salary costs of 27,500 rubles.

Energy costs.

- cost of 1 kW - 1.50 p.;

- power consumption - 27 kW/h.

The cost at the Lyubertsy machine-building plant is 400 thousand rubles.

Conclusion

The adopted design of the complex of machines for the construction of drilling piles and the developed drilling tool meets the requirements for the construction of this kind.

The diploma project has worked out all the questions indicated in the task. In the state of the art, the selection of main and auxiliary equipment has been made.

The novelty and relevance of drilling piles was an important task in the design.

Proper arrangement of MT and R of drilling tool allows to increase duration and efficiency of operation.

A number of issues resolved during the diploma design relate to protection from weapons of mass destruction.

At the final stage of the diploma project, the technical and economic indicators of the corrected drilling tool were determined.

During the diploma design, various recommendations of the departments and directly the head of the diploma project were used.

Literature

1. Bashkatov D.N., Olonovsky Yu.A. Rotary screw drilling of exploration wells, Moscow, Nedra, 1968

2. Metelyuk S.N., Shishko G.F. Piles and piling foundations, Kiev, Budivelnik, 1977

3. Volodin Yu.I. Drilling fundamentals, Moscow, Nedra, 1986

4. Smorodinov M.I. and others. Piling works, Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1988

5. Ermoshkin P.M., Construction of bored piles, Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1982

6. Goncharov Yu.M., Targulyan Yu.O., Vartanov S.H., Pile work on permafrost soils, Leningrad, Stroyizdat, 1981

7. Boyko N.V., Kadyrov A.S., Kharchenko V.V., Shchelkonogov N.V. Technology, organization and complex mechanization of piling, Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1985

8. Rudenko - Morgun I.Ya., Chicherin I.I. Piling Technology, Moscow, Higher School, 1985

9. Kosorukov I.I. Piling works, Moscow, Higher School, 1974

10. Korobeynikov N.L. Electrical equipment of construction machines and power supply of construction, Leningrad, VVITKU, 1972

11. USSR Climate Handbook, Issue 27, Wind

12. USSR Climate Handbook, Issue 27, Humidity

13. Dobronravov S.S. Construction machines and equipment, Moscow, Higher School, 1991

14. Anuryev V.I. Handbook of the Designer of Mechanical Engineering, Moscow, 2001

Drawings content

icon Карта смазывания.dwg

Карта смазывания.dwg

icon монтаж.dwg

монтаж.dwg

icon ОВ.dwg

ОВ.dwg

icon Специф[1]. шнек 2.cdw

Специф[1]. шнек 2.cdw

icon схема ЭС.dwg

схема ЭС.dwg

icon ТС буронаб[1].свай.dwg

icon ТС произв[1].работ.dwg

ТС произв[1].работ.dwg
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