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Design of lifting device with further optimization based on stress-strain analysis

  • Added: 29.07.2014
  • Size: 6 MB
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Description

Diploma. Drawings and note.
The designed semi-trailer is equipped with a lifting device designed for loading and unloading large-capacity containers according to GOST 18477-77, sizes 1C, 1CC and 1CX. Lifting capacity of the device is not less than 25000 kg. Preliminary arrangement of semi-trailer with installed lifting devices.

Project's Content

Name Size
icon 2_diplom.rar
6 MB
icon Drawings_1
icon Sheet_1_and_2
icon GPU.cdw
540 KB
icon GPU.dwg
141 KB
icon sheet_10
icon ECONOMY.cdw
57 KB
icon sheet_3
icon FRAME.cdw
195 KB
icon sheet_4
icon Upper_beam.cdw
77 KB
icon Cargo_boom.cdw
104 KB
icon sheet_5
icon Support_beam.cdw
95 KB
icon SUPPORT.cdw
76 KB
icon sheet_6
icon Kronsheyn.cdw
70 KB
icon Slave_lever.cdw
55 KB
icon Drive_lever.cdw
55 KB
icon traverse.cdw
65 KB
icon sheet_7
icon Sole.cdw
69 KB
icon Eye.cdw
51 KB
icon Swivel_boom.cdw
139 KB
icon Cheek.cdw
61 KB
icon sheet_8
icon Speed_Plans.cdw
88 KB
icon sheet_9
icon Hydroscheme.cdw
171 KB
icon Drawings_2
icon 3D_DIAGRAMS.cdw
4 MB
icon charts.cdw
58 KB
icon Force_Plans.cdw
107 KB
icon Semitrailer_+.cdw
460 KB
icon ECONOMY.cdw
71 KB
icon Part_1.doc
4 MB
icon Part_2.doc
3 MB

Additional information

Contents

Introduction

1 Calculation and design of lifting device

for semi-trailer-container ship

1.1 Analysis of basic model of semi-trailer-container ship

1.2 Determination of kinematic characteristics

1.3 Determination of swivel boom speeds

1.4 Determination of cargo boom speeds

1.5 Calculation of hydraulic drive operating parameters

and hydraulic cylinders

1.6 Selection and calculation of hydraulic equipment

1.7 Calculation and selection of pipelines

1.8 Calculation and selection of power supply

hydraulic drive

1.9 Design of lifting device units

2 Determination of lifting device cost

2.1 Determining the Value of Material

2.2 Determination of value of purchased products

and semi-finished products

2.3 Determination of Rework Cost

2.4 Calculation of wages of production workers

2.5 Calculation of shop and plant-wide expenses

2.6 Determination of the total cost of the device

2.7 Determination of additional profit from sales

upgraded semi-trailer

2.8 Determination of the added value of the semitrailer

3 Life safety

3.1 Organization of occupational safety service at the enterprise

3.2 Hazards and hazards arising

in production

3.3 Ensuring Process Safety

equipment

3.4 Calculation of overturning protection device

in hazardous situations

3.5 Emergency situations arising in the workshop

3.6 Sources of environmental pollution

and measures to protect it

Conclusion

List of sources used

Specifications

Introduction

Container transport is one of the most popular modes of cargo transport, especially in multi-modal transport and, above all, in international export-import and transit transport. The dimensions of the container are strictly regulated by international standards for container transportation, which is associated with the dimensions of vehicles, container fastening devices, stacking conditions during transportation and storage.

Currently, a significant proportion of inland container transport over short distances is by road. These transport operations are carried out by specialized transport companies with vehicles of different carrying capacities, equipped with devices for securely attaching the transported container to the frame of the car or trailer (semi-trailer).

When using containers, especially large and heavy containers, the quality of handling is of great importance. When there are certain factors, the goods carried may pose a potential threat to the environment, life and health. The reason for most accidents, damage to cargo is that each shift of transport carried out transshipment operations using lifting devices that are not suitable for this purpose.

Not all users of container transport services have fixed or mobile lifting devices and qualified operators of these devices, as a result of which consumers have to bear the additional costs of leasing, hiring or purchasing additional lifting equipment.

In view of the above, the search for a comprehensive solution to the storage, transportation and transshipment of containers is of particular relevance. This project considers the possibility of combining the functions of transport and lifting equipment with an auto-mobile semi-trailer due to additional equipment by a specialized lifting device.

Any equipment related to container cargoes (including lifting) shall meet the requirements of the International Convention on Safe Containers and the Rules of the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping.

Lifting devices shall be subject to periodic technical inspection for compliance with the rules of installation and safe operation of lifting cranes of the State Gortekhnadzor of Russia. The technical examination is carried out by the organization operating the lifting device, without the participation of the bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor. In addition, lifting devices installed on vehicles must meet the requirements of the rules for the safety of freight traffic on roads.

Today, the domestic and foreign motor transport industry produces a large number of semi-trailers designed for large-capacity containers. Their functionality is limited by the transport of containers. Thus, the objective of the project: the development of a specialized lifting device for installation on an automobile semi-trailer is relevant, and will further increase the demand for container transportation.

3.3 Ensuring safety of process equipment

Workshops of modern machine-building plants are equipped with a variety of types of blacksmith and press equipment. Its use facilitates the work of a person, makes it productive. However, in some cases, the operation of this equipment is associated with a production hazard, that is, with the possibility of affecting working hazardous or harmful production factors. The danger is localized in the space around any moving elements, sliders and associated parts of stamping equipment, fast-rotating flywheels and electromechanical drive elements. In all cases, there is a risk of injury to the persons servicing the equipment by the moving parts of the latter.

Safety of production equipment is ensured by the correct choice of principles of its operation, kinematic schemes, structural solutions, working bodies, parameters of working processes, using various protective means. External circuits of protective devices must fit into the circuits of the main equipment. It is necessary to try that these protective devices allow you to solve several problems at the same time and, if possible, structurally combine with machines and units, being their integral part. Reliability of machines and mechanisms is determined by the probability of equipment malfunction. This kind of violation can cause an accident and, ultimately, an injury. When designing process equipment in mechanical engineering and during its operation, it is necessary to provide for the use of devices that either exclude the possibility of a human contact with a hazardous area or reduce the risk of contact. Some kind of devices are means of protecting workers, used to prevent or reduce the impact on working hazardous and harmful production factors.

Protective equipment is classified into two large groups: collective, ensuring the safety of production equipment; individual, ensuring safety of production processes.

All protective devices used in mechanical engineering can be divided into the following main groups: protective (stationary, non-removable), movable (removable) and portable; safety devices; blocking; signalling (signalling); machine remote control system; special devices (local exhaust ventilation systems, noise silencers, vibration isolators, vibration dampers, etc.).

When machining sheet parts of the metal structure of the lifting device on forge-press equipment (crank-bearing presses, edges, rollers), it is necessary to comply with safety requirements.

Industrial presses having a high-speed flywheel, a translational slider, as well as servicing press lifting equipment, are a source of increased danger. Therefore, work on blacksmith-press equipment requires compliance with a set of technical, sanitary and legal measures aimed at creating safe and healthy working conditions.

The designs of industrial presses and their process accessories shall meet the requirements set forth in GOST. Requirements for safe operation are set out in the relevant instructions available at each enterprise.

The main danger of the press is a slider moving at a speed of 40... 100 double strokes per minute and developing a force of up to 200 tons. Unprotected protruding parts of the slider or movable elements of the stamping equipment when inadvertently approaching them can cause serious injury.

The working parts of the die (knives, dies, punches) and its fixed guiding elements are also dangerous. These parts are made of hard, but at the same time brittle steels, and are often destroyed with the formation of fragments with incorrect adjustment of the press stroke, violations of the correct mutual arrangement of the base surfaces, poor-quality manufacture of parts.

In order to avoid such cases, it is necessary to carefully inspect the press and stamping equipment, starting work, paying special attention to the condition of the slider, reliable attachment of the flywheel and other movable units. The tooling shall not have protruding fastener heads or they shall be protected by enclosures.

In the structure of the upper and lower plates of the designed devices, bolt bores are provided that hide their heads in the body of the basic parts. For precise alignment of the components of the upper and lower blocks, pins are provided, which are installed with no-greater interference in jointly treated holes.

When adjusting the press and dies, it is often necessary to observe the mutual arrangement of the dies and punches. Special attention and caution should be given, as they sometimes had to tilt close to the moving parts of the equipment.

Great care is needed during the disposal of waste and due to the attraction of the finished part from the stamp, as well as when adjusting the adjustment devices. It is very important to systematically monitor the condition of the rubbing guide surfaces of the stamping equipment, to prevent the occurrence of extreme wear and jamming. Rubbing surfaces must be cleaned from contaminants and constantly lubricated with grease.

Before starting the press, it is necessary to inspect it, check whether all the requirements are met. Then check the operation of all its mechanisms and then turn on the power supply with a common switch, and start the press in some way.

Parts can be measured only after the press is stopped. Electric shock protection is mandatory. Current-carrying parts shall be insulated or insulated, electrical equipment having open current-carrying parts shall be located inside the housings or shall be insulated by protective casings. Metal parts, which may be energized to a dangerous value due to a malfunction, are grounded.

Grounding of systems and devices of forging and pressing equipment shall comply with the requirements of GOST 12.2.007.075 and GOST 2113075. Electrical equipment shall have a degree of protection not lower than IP44 as per GOST 1425480. If the equipment can operate in semi-automatic or automatic modes, a device shall be provided on the control panel for its switching to manual control in the adjustment mode.

3.5 Emergency situations arising in the workshop

An emergency is a circumstance arising from natural disasters, accidents and disasters of a man-made, ecological origin, military social and political nature, causing deviations from the norm of life of people, the economy, the social sphere and the natural environment.

The production shops of machine-building enterprises are most characterized by fire danger, as well as the danger of explosion - sudden depressurization of pipelines and devices with excessive internal pressure.

Fire prevention provides for the presence of primary fire extinguishing equipment in the workshop - fire extinguishers. For this type of equipment, it is best to use the powder fire extinguisher OP5; OP10, it does not have a corrosive effect on the metal, and is also suitable for extinguishing electrical equipment units.

To ensure safe evacuation of people in the building in case of fire, evacuation exits are provided. Evacuation exits must be at least two. Escape doors shall open towards the exit of the building. The installation of sliding and lifting doors on escape routes is prohibited.

In order to prevent an emergency related to depressurization of process or heating pipelines, it is necessary to introduce various measuring means into hazardous points of pipelines to monitor the pressure in the system. Faucets shutting off hot water supply shall be located in an accessible place and provide quick water shutdown.

In order to prevent fire and explosive situation, it is necessary to monitor the state of the steam and gas-air medium in the process equipment where these works are carried out and in the hazardous area before and during the fire works.

In the event of an increase in the content of combustible substances or a decrease in the concentration of the phlegmatizer in the hazardous area or process equipment to the maximum permissible explosion-proof concentrations of vapors (gases), the fire operations shall be immediately stopped.

During maintenance of the equipment, first of all, it is necessary to check that as a result of the power outage there is no fall of transported objects or equipment units in a raised or unstable position. Only then can the electrical and pneumatic power be turned off, making sure that the system is completely depressurized.

3.6 Sources of environmental pollution and measures for its protection

Ambient atmospheric air is continuously contaminated. The air of production premises is contaminated by releases of process equipment or during technological processes without localization of waste substances. Ventilation air removed from the room can cause air pollution of industrial sites and populated areas. In addition, the air of industrial sites and populated areas is polluted by technological emissions of workshops, vehicles and other sources. Modern engineering is developing on the basis of large production associations, including procurement and blacksmithing workshops, thermal and mechanical metal processing workshops, coating workshops and large foundry.

Mechanical machining of metals on machines is accompanied by separation of dust, mists, oils and emulsions, which are ejected from the premises through the ventilation system.

Atmospheric protection must limit the presence of harmful substances in the air of the human habitat at the MPC level. Compliance with the requirements is achieved by localizing harmful substances at the place of their formation, withdrawing from the room or from equipment or dispersing in the atmosphere. In practice, the following options for protecting atmospheric air are implemented: removal of toxic substances from premises by general exchange ventilation, localization of toxic substances in the zone of their formation by local ventilation, cleaning of contaminated air with special devices and its return to the production room, if the air after purification in the device meets the regulatory requirements for plenum air; cleaning of process gas emissions in special devices, emission and dispersion in the atmosphere; cleaning of spent units of power plants, for example, internal combustion engines in special units, and emission into the atmosphere or production zone (mines, quarries, warehouses, etc.)

The management of natural resources has recently become extremely important. The plant has the following technical means of cleaning emissions into the atmosphere: dust-collecting plant for collecting dust from a grinding machine, exhaust plant for grinding machines, gas-collecting plant for collecting acid vapors, alkalis, etc. Thus, for each type of pollution, there is a different method, a special apparatus, which allows you to obtain a high degree of purification with minimal energy consumption.

The main area of ​ ​ work on the protection and rational use of water resources of RuzHimmash OJSC is the construction and reconstruction of local and knot treatment facilities, the introduction of a recycled water supply system, improving the operation and improving the efficiency of existing facilities for the treatment of household and industrial wastewater, reducing the discharge of contaminated wastewater, leaks and water losses.

Conclusion

At implementation of the degree project kinematic calculation and designing of knots and details of the load-lifting device for model 9454M semi-trailer container carrier - 000010 1847777 standard sizes of 1CC intended for transportation of large-capacity containers in accordance with GOST was made. In addition, the hydraulic drive of the device was designed.

The designed lifting device can be installed on the base semi-trailer with a minimum change in its design (the number of wheel axles, main overall dimensions, etc.).

The comparison of the cost of the designed device with the cost of a stationary lifting device or car crane makes it possible to conclude that the serial production of the modernized semi-trailer is economically feasible and in demand.

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