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Automation of caramel production process

  • Added: 09.07.2014
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icon Курсовая (97).doc
icon Прин-электрическая схема.dwg
icon Принципиальная схема автоматизации.dwg
icon Схема КТС автоматизации.dwg

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Assignment for Course Engineering


1. Main part

1.1 Process Summary

1.1.1 Caramel preparation technology

1.1.2 Technochemical control of caramel production

1.1.3 Recycling of caramel wastes

1.2 Process Analysis as a Control Object

1.3 Setting of automation task

1.4 Selection of hardware complex

1.5 Description of the structural diagram of the hardware complex

1.6 Description of automation diagram

1.7 Description of circuit diagram

2. Conclusion

3. List of literature

Appendix A

Appendix B

Job for Course Project

Develop an automated process control system for the production of caramel.

Study and describe the technology of the caramel production process.

Analyze the process as a control object. Note here that input and output parameters, disturbing action and control action are distinguished.

Give a descriptive statement of the automation task and a formalized statement of the automation task.

Select a set of hardware.

Develop and draw in AutoCad:

• structural diagram of the hardware complex;

• process automation scheme;

• electrical circuit diagram.


A characteristic property of control systems, which defines as their special class of dynamic systems, is the use of current information on controlled and controlling actions when implementing inverse and compensating connections designed to ensure optimal quality of control according to the selected criterion. The criterion for the effectiveness of food production is considered to be the standard quality of food products produced.

Increasing the capacity, complexity and cost of technological complexes and systems as control objects, tightening the requirements for product quality, environmental protection and personnel safety, as well as ensuring the long-term operability of equipment are economic and social prerequisites for continuous improvement of control systems.

Automation of production is one of the main areas of the comprehensive program of scientific and technological progress. The main goal is to ensure the optimal flow of the technical process in real conditions when achieving the specified quality and efficiency.

The word "technology" combines two concepts: "techne" - art, craft technology and "logos" - teaching, science. Thus, the word "technology" means teaching or science about the methods and means of processing material .

Modern food technology is based on almost all fundamental sciences. Complex processes that occur when processing raw materials into food products are based on the laws of physics, thermophysics, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, mechanics, etc. Only a technologist with knowledge in these areas of science can be truly competent. The technology is inextricably linked to the economy of production of each type of product. It is appropriate to recall the words of D. I. Mendeleev in relation to iron smelting: "It is a matter of chemistry to study the production of iron from its ore, and the matter of technology to study the most profitable methods for this, to choose from the possibilities the time and place most applied to these conditions in order to give the product the greatest cheapness with the desired properties and forms ."

Thus, the connection of technology with the economy is emphasized. This applies entirely to food production. In this case, requirements for high quality of the product are put forward. The purpose of the course project is to get acquainted with the production process and technology. This project will consider the confectionery industry of the food industry .

Food production is based on chemical and technical processes. The development of food technology led to the creation of large single-capacity devices, and led to the need to create automation of these industries. Measuring devices and automatic devices provide optimal process flow, inaccessible to manual control. Therefore, automation allows you to most efficiently use all the resources of food production, improve quality.

Progress has now been made in the development of automated control systems. This contributed to the rapid development of microprocessor means capable of performing the entire range of functions for converting, feeding, processing, using information to influence the process and for communication with the operator. First of all, the state of technological facilities is measured, monitored and controlled.

1.1 Short description of caramel production

1.1.1 Caramel preparation technology

The production flow chart of caramel consists of the following main stages:

Preparation of sugar - molded syrup

Preparation of caramel mass

Caramel mass treatment (cooling, acidification, aromatization, flushing and pulling of caramel mass)

Preparation of fillings

Caramel moulding

Caramel cooling

Caramel wrapping or protective treatment of its surface (sprinkling, glossing, dressing, glazing with chocolate glaze).

Packing and packing of caramel.

Caramel mass at temperature over 100 ° C is a viscous transparent liquid. As the temperature decreases, its viscosity increases significantly. The mass acquires ductility at a temperature of 7090 ° C. At these temperatures, it is well shaped. With further cooling below 50 ° C, the caramel mass turns into a solid vitreous body.

The technological process of caramel preparation consists of the following stages: preparation of syrup; preparation of caramel mass; cooling and treatment of caramel mass; preparation of caramel fillings; forming caramel; cooling the caramel; wrapping or finishing the surface of the caramel; packing.

Each of these stages includes many separate operations, which are performed differently in different enterprises and in the production of caramel of different names.

The initial product for production of caramel mass is sugar syrup. Syrup is a concentrated (over 40%) solution of various sugars (sucrose, glucose, maltose, fructose, etc.) or mixtures thereof in water.

The syrup is a clear viscous, almost colorless liquid. Depending on the dissolved sugar, the syrup is called: sugar (sucrose), invert (a mixture of equal amounts of glucose and fructose), sucrose (sucrose and molasses), etc.

In caramel production, combined syrups are usually used, which include not one type of sugar, but two or more.

The use of molasses or invert syrup in caramel production is due to their anticrystallization properties. It is not possible to prepare a caramel mass without the addition of anticrystallizers. When the sugar solution is boiled, its concentration increases continuously and reaches saturation, i.e., a state where a further increase in concentration leads to supersaturation and the release of sugar as crystals.

In connection with all the above-mentioned raw materials, sugar and molasses serve for preparing caramel syrup as a semi-finished product for making caramel mass.

1.1.2 Technochemical control of caramel production

High quality products can be produced only if all production modes are observed and all possible deviations are promptly corrected. For such prompt correction of possible deviations from the optimal process mode, constant operational information about the process progress is required. Such information is provided by the technochemical control service based on systematic analyses and readings of instrumentation.

All production stages are controlled, from the supply of raw materials to the output of finished products. The quality of raw materials and materials is controlled not only at the time of receipt, but also periodically with prolonged storage in warehouses.

One of the main tasks facing the technochemical control service is to monitor the progress of the production process. All chemical and physical changes occurring in raw materials and semi-finished products at all stages of the process are constantly checked. Process parameters such as temperature, humidity, duration of treatment in separate apparatuses and the like are monitored.

It is important to control the accuracy of dosing of individual raw materials and semi-finished products in accordance with recipe standards. Even minor systematic dosage deviations can significantly affect the quality of products, as well as the economic performance of the enterprise. For example, with a systematic increase in the rate of introduction of expensive food acids, the cost of production will increase significantly, or with a systematic deviation from the rate of consumption of chocolate glaze, the quality of products may significantly decrease, or this will negatively affect the economic performance of the entire enterprise.

1.1.3 Recycling of caramel wastes

Wastes obtained at various stages of caramel production are weighed in trays and, after appropriate treatment, sent to dissolution devices. The obtained syrup is used for filling.

Storage in workshops and transportation of all types of scrap waste should be carried out in special containers with appropriate inscriptions. The waste obtained in the various stages of caramel preparation is weighed in trays, disassembled (paper and foil removed) and sent for dissolution to various solvents. In order to save expensive chocolate glaze, it is recommended to pre-remove glaze from glazed caramel waste in the machine of the Babaev factory system.

Method of dissolving wastes. Dissolution of waste is carried out both in cold and hot ways, in devices of various systems.

The cold method of dissolving waste is carried out in a double metal drum of periodic action, in which the outer drum is stationary, and the inner drum made of a mesh with a cell diameter of 5 mm is rotating. The screen drum speed is 4045 rpm. It is equipped with loading funnel with cover. To dissolve the waste, sweet water is used, with a temperature of at least + 12C. A one-time drum load of 300 kg of waste and 100 liters of water. The duration of the dissolution process is 25 minutes. The content of dry substances in the syrup is not less than 70%. The content of reducing substances is within 13.514.5%. The capacity of the device is up to 960 kg of syrup per hour. The finished syrup is filtered through nets with a cell diameter of 3 mm and 1.52 mm. The syrup is light, used to prepare fruit-berry and light apple fillings.

Hot method of dissolving waste. Dissolution of waste in a hot process (using heating steam) is carried out either in dissuators equipped with a bubbler and heating coils, or in apparatus such as autoclaves. In both cases, steam of 2-3 kgf/cm2 is used. When dissolving in a dissulator, the waste is loaded into the apparatus in an amount of not more than 600700 kg. With a larger load, they dissolve poorly, form a monolithic mass, which pours a dense layer on coils and a bubbler. As a result, the mass burns and the significant deposit layer formed on the coils reduces the heat transfer coefficient and degrades the quality of the syrup. When dissolving wastes, syrup is boiled to dry substances content of not less than 70%. The finished syrup, as in the previous case, is filtered through one or more nets, after which it enters the receiver, in which it is recommended to have a settling tank.

In the hot process of dissolving waste, as a result of prolonged and uneven heating, the syrup is darker than in the cold process. In this case, the waste syrup can be used to prepare dark varieties of fruit-berry fillings. Waste storage and transportation in workshops shall be carried out in special tanks with appropriate inscriptions.

1.3 Setting the task of automating the production of caramel

At the stage of APCS development, the object management goal is formed, which may be technological or economic in nature (increase of plant profit, reduction of production cost, etc.).

Task: To develop an automated control system for the caramel production process. To do this, select a set of automation equipment. Create a structural, fundamentally electric and automated circuit. Ensure uninterrupted operation of the entire compartment and obtain a uniform mass of caramel for further processing in other compartments.

The main goal: preparation of caramel from the mass obtained by boiling out caramel syrup.

At the same time, considering that the sugar solution made by boiling with caramel molasses or invert syrup to caramel mass should be with a humidity of 1.5... 4%, with the addition of various flavoring, aromatic and coloring substances. Also, the temperature in the process of boiling out the syrup can vary in the range from 100 to 120 ° C, and the percentage of dry substances - in the range from 8086%.

1.4 Selection of a set of technical means of automating the production of caramel

Devices and automation means include a large group of devices that measure, regulate, control and alarm process parameters. They are divided into measuring and converting instruments, control devices, actuators and regulators.

Of great importance is the selection of appropriate devices, control devices and computer equipment. The correct selection of automation means ensures reliable operation of all components of automatic control and control systems.

For information exchange, the use of protocols and interfaces of APCS components of the control network, as well as standard communication interfaces between microprocessor controllers, CAS and PC is effective. The implementation of the tasks of managing this production can be carried out using the control systems "Krug" (Penza), the company "Prosoft" (Russia), etc.

To implement production management, it is advisable to use the Krug2000 complex.

CAS "Krug2000" includes a package of programs "Krug2000," any certified controller (Z130, TK-301, etc.).

The Krug2000 complex is designed to create modern APCS at facilities with concentrated and distributive parameters. On the basis of CAS, systems have been created that cover the control levels of the unit, groups of units, process unit, workshop, production and association.

Features of "Krug2000" CAS are as follows:

• All software and technical components are certified;

• Compliance with the standard and other applicable regulations, in particular those adopted for APCS;

• Openness of systems in increasing and making changes;

• Support of 100% "burning" redundancy of the station operator, controllers, networks;

• Support of international standards of network protocols;

• Repairability and efficient maintenance of network protocols.

Information functions: measurement and control of parameters, detection, alarm and recording of cases of deviations of parameters from established boundaries; manual data entry; generation and issuance of operational data; archiving; analysis of interlocks and protections actuation; solution of calculation tasks.

Control functions: direct digital process control using all known automatic control laws; implementation of control schemes by forming them from an algoblock library using the Krugol technological language; output of control signals from the operator station and discrete control actions to the controller from the computer keyboard.

The system monitors the passage of commands from the keyboard to the monitor and controller.

Auxiliary functions: testing and self-diagnostics of CTS system reconfiguration (software reconfiguration), detailed screen assistance to the operator, support of a single system time .

The APCS LAN is based on Ethernettechnology network (10 or 100 Mbps). The basic networking protocol is TCP/IP or UDP/IP. At the same time, a software "add-on" of the protocol is provided with ensuring its adaptation to the special requirements of the IOS during data exchange, the possibility of 100% "burning" redundancy of networks is provided.

Software: the following OS are used in CAS:

• DOS, 32-bit extension (protective mode) with built-in RV task manager (network version) - used in controller, operator stations, engineering station, archiving station, laboratory station;

• QNX or DOS - used in the controller;

• Windows NT - apply in their system, except for the controller.

Multiple operating systems can be used simultaneously throughout the system. Specific selection of operating systems is carried out taking into account speed, reliability, cost and other characteristics.

Instrumentation (instrumentation monitoring) and control equipment consists of the following selected automation equipment complex:

To measure and control the flow rate of kneading at the inlet to the contact head, it is carried out using the model 8800A intelligent vortex flowmeter;

Thermoresistor thermometers Metran204 TSM are used for temperature measurement and control;

A Metran 43 DG hydrostatic pressure sensor was selected to measure and monitor the level in the digester and separator;

To measure steam pressure, use Metran sensor 45 EhDI (5130).

Drawings content

icon Прин-электрическая схема.dwg

Прин-электрическая схема.dwg

icon Принципиальная схема автоматизации.dwg

Принципиальная схема автоматизации.dwg

icon Схема КТС автоматизации.dwg

Схема КТС  автоматизации.dwg

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