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Heating and ventilation of the administrative - commercial building on the street. Mom-Sibiryak in Yekaterinburg

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Description

The theme of the graduation project "Heating and ventilation of the administrative - commercial building on the street. Mother-Sibiryak in Yekaterinburg." In the diploma project, heating and ventilation systems of the administrative and commercial building were calculated. The design was carried out on the basis of architectural and construction drawings in accordance with the current regulatory documents [1], [2], [3].

Object: 3-storey administrative - commercial building.

The number of floors is 3, the height of the first floor is 4.8 m, the height of the second and third floors is 3.3 m. The building has a non-heated basement at an elevation of -3.600 m, which is used to accommodate the equipment of the heating station and main pipelines of the heating system.

On the ground floor (elev. + -0.000) of the building there is an entrance group (lobby, wardrobe, security, staircase and elevator unit), a cafe with a dining room, with a kitchen and utility rooms, an electric shield and a ventilation chamber.

The second and third floors are occupied by office space.

The design outside air temperature for designing heating and ventilation is accepted as -35 0С in the cold period (temperature of the coldest five-day coverage is 0.92 according to [2]), + 10 0С in the transition period, + 220С in the warm period.

Design temperature of internal air for administrative and domestic premises is accepted according to SNiP 2.09.04-87 * "Administrative and domestic buildings" [3], reference manual to SNiP 2.08.02-89 "Design of catering enterprises" [4].

The source of coolant is the central boiler house, which provides the temperature of coolant (water) in the supply line 950C, in the reverse 700C.

The heating system of the administrative - commercial building is two-pipe, with the associated movement of the coolant (Tikhelman system).

Risers and lines are made of steel pipes GOST 3262-75 and GOST 10704-91. The flooring is made of metal plastic pipes and fittings from Henco.

Automatic balancing valves "Danfoss" ASV-P are installed on the risers to stabilize the pressure difference. Manual shutoff and balancing valves USV-I are installed on the staircases.

Panel steel radiators Kermi of lower connection FKV are selected as heating devices. Adjustment of heat removal of panel radiators is carried out using "Danfoss" temperature controllers. Air release is carried out at higher points of the system through Mayevsky cranes, drainage is provided at lower points of the system through drain valves of balancing valves and ball cranes.

Nine plenum, seventeen exhaust systems with mechanical inducement of air movement and three natural systems are designed for ventilation of rooms.

Air exchanges in the rooms of the hot shop and the dining room are designed to assimilate heat and moisture. Air exchanges for auxiliary rooms are determined by multiplicities, according to norms [3], [4]. Air is supplied to hot shop and removed by means of plenum-exhaust localizing device installed above electric modulated equipment.

In the diploma project, the calculation of the air distribution of the dining room was carried out. The selected supply air supply scheme ensures the allowable speed and temperature of the air flow in the room.

We use VEZA equipment as plenum units. As exhaust devices - channel and roof fans of the company "Systemair."

DVS-P diffusers are adopted as air distributors on the tributary; DVS diffusers are adopted on the exhaust. External ARN grilles are used at air intake.

To prevent cold air from entering the hall of offices on the 1st floor, 4 heat curtains of Frico company are installed in the tambours, with a capacity of 9 kW each.

A comparison was made between the versions of heating systems - single-tube and double-tube. As a result, it was obtained that it is more expedient to use a two-tube heating system.

In the section "nature management and environmental protection," acoustic calculation of the plenum system P4 was made and the need for noise suppression was evaluated. It was decided to install a silencer in the plenum chamber to reduce the sound pressure level as required.

The section "Project Safety" identified negative impacts of various origin on human life, developed and implemented measures to protect human and habitat from these negative impacts, and also checked the compliance of the project with safety and environmental requirements.

Project's Content

Name Size
icon diplom_po_ov.rar
4 MB
icon dis_diploma
icon Diploma_Seal.dwg
2 MB
icon FULL_DIPLOMA_2.docx
2 MB

Additional information

Contents

PAPER

LIST OF GRAPHIC DOCUMENT SHEETS

Contents

INTRODUCTION

1. source data

1.1 Design parameters of internal and external air

1.2 Architectural and construction characteristics

2. Heating

2.1 Thermal engineering calculation of enclosing structures

2.1.1 Required heat transfer resistance

2.1.2 Resistance to heat transfer under energy saving conditions

2.1.3 Thermal calculation of light openings

2.1.4 Thermal design of external doors

2.1.5 Determination of insulation layer thickness

2.1.6 Calculation of technical basement enclosing structures

2.2 Determination of temperatures by rooms

2.2.1 Calculation of temperature in tambours and loggia

2.2.2 Design temperatures and air exchange ratios

2.3 Calculation of heat loss

2.3.1 Main Heat Loss

2.3.2 Additional heat loss

2.3.3 Heat loss for heating of infiltrating outdoor air

2.3.4 Heating capacity of residential building heating system

2.4 Determination of specific thermal characteristics of a residential building

2.5 Heating System Design

2.5.1 Installation of heating appliances

2.5.2 Laying of pipelines

2.5.3 Air removal

2.5.4 Valves

2.6 Thermal calculation of heating devices

2.7 Hydraulic calculation of heating system

3. Ventilation

3.1 Calculation of ventilation systems for the restaurant for 34 seats and hot shop

3.1.1 Initial data

3.1.2 Determination of emissions of heat, water vapors and harmful substances

3.1.3 Selection of design values of plenum and removed air temperatures

3.1.4 Determination of air exchange for the design room by harmful emissions

3.2 Building air balance

3.3 Design of ventilation systems

3.4 Aerodynamic calculation of ventilation systems

3.4.1 Aerodynamic calculation of mechanical ventilation systems

3.4.2 Aerodynamic calculation of natural ventilation systems

3.5 Calculation of air distribution

3.6 Equipment selection

4. Environmental management and protection

5. List of literature

Introduction

Heating and ventilation are an important construction industry. They serve to create conditions of high-performance labor, to increase creative activity, full recreation of people.

The main purpose of ventilation is to maintain the required parameters of the air environment, which would ensure the normal well-being of people and harmlessness of work.

The purpose of the diploma project is to calculate and design the heating and ventilation system of the administrative and commercial building. The graphic and text part is made in accordance with the requirements of [5].

The explanatory note is a material presented in the form of text, tables, figures. The graphic part is presented on 9 sheets, which depict the decisions taken on the organization of heating and ventilation systems.

1.2 Architectural and construction characteristics

3-story administrative - commercial building on the street. Mother - Sibiryaka in the October district of Yekaterinburg.

The number of floors is 3, the height of the first floor is 4.8 m, the height of the second and third floors is 3.3 m. Elevations from 3.600 to + 11.400.

Ceilings, coatings - cast-in-situ in railway runs.

Columns - cast-in-situ.

The building has a non-heated basement (elev. 3.600m), which is used to place heating station equipment and main pipelines of the heating system. The entry of highways into is carried out from the northern facade of the building. On the ground floor (elev. 0.000) the building has an entrance group (lobby, wardrobe, security, stair lift unit), a cafe with a dining room, with a kitchen and utility rooms, an electric shield and a ventilation chamber. The second and third floors are occupied by office space.

External enclosing structures are made of foam concrete blocks. Type of foam concrete: Structural and thermal insulation D800. γ = 0.21 W/( m· С).

The wall with insulation from the mineral wool plate "Rockwool" is 150 mm (a = 0.048 W/( m· C)) and the external finish is a ventilated facade system.

Windows, stained glass windows, entrance doors and vestibules are aluminum with REHAU double glazing. Rok = 0.64 m2 ° C/W.

External metal doors, PVC.

Internal doors - wooden, PVC.

Internal partitions:

- in wet rooms made of brick;

- in other rooms - gypsum gravel with a thickness of 100 mm.

Floors are made according to KNAUFsuperpole technology - prefabricated base of OP 131 floor elements.

The roof is a combined roll roof with an internal drain. The flooring is made in the form of a 220 mm thick reinforced concrete slab, a Bikroelast P vapor insulating layer with a thickness of 3 mm, insulated with mineral wool slabs ROCKWOOL RUF BATTS ®, a waterproofing layer Technoelast P with a thickness of 4 mm.

2.5 Heating System Design

The source of coolant is the central boiler house, which provides the temperature of coolant (water) in the supply line 950C, in the reverse 700C.

Selected heating system with associated water movement. In a system with associated water movement, the circulation circuits are equal. Radiators warm up evenly, it is quite difficult to unbalance such a system, with proper operation.

The building does not have a heated basement, and there is no attic. An individual heat station is located in the basement, in a separate room equipped with an iron door, to prevent unauthorized persons from entering there.

The presence of the basement indicates that it is advisable to use a heating system with lower wiring, and for the uniform heating of heating devices that are the most distant from the heat point, the heating system is accepted as a two-pipe heating system with the associated movement of the coolant (Tikhelman system ).

Risers and lines are made of steel pipes GOST 326275 and GOST 1070491. Flooring is made of metal plastic pipes and fittings from Henco.

At the intersection of floors and walls, pipelines are laid in casings made of non-combustible materials.

2.5.1 Installation of heating appliances

Heating devices should be placed, as a rule, under the light openings in places accessible for inspection, repair and cleaning.

The length of the heating device should be determined by calculation and, as a rule, take at least 50% - in residential and public buildings.

Heating devices on staircases should usually be placed on the first floor, and on staircases divided into compartments - at the bottom of each compartment. Heating devices should not be placed in compartments of tombs having external doors.

In staircases, including smokeless ones, it is not allowed to install heating devices protruding from the plane of the walls at a height of less than 2.2 m from the surface of the treads and staircase platforms. [2]

2.5.2 Laying of pipelines

Main pipelines are laid on brackets along external walls 1 m lower from the basement ceiling. Main pipelines in the basement are heat insulated. All main pipelines shall have a slope of 0.003 towards the heating system inlet unit.

When designing a heating system, it is recommended to divide it into two approximately identical parts (branches) located symmetrically with respect to the input unit. Risers are laid openly. Heating devices of staircases and elevator platforms are connected to the heating system by independent risers according to a flow scheme.

For risers and branches, water and gas pipes according to GOST 326275 are used, for main pipelines - electric welded pipes according to GOST 1070476.

In case of hidden laying of pipelines, manholes shall be provided at locations of detachable joints and valves. Laying of pipelines from polymer pipes shall be provided hidden: in the floor, plinths, behind screens, in bars, shafts and channels; open gasket is allowed in places where their mechanical, thermal damage and direct effect of ultraviolet radiation on pipes are excluded.

Pipelines at the intersection of floors, internal walls and partitions should be laid in casings made of non-combustible materials. [2]

2.5.3 Air removal

During lower routing of supply lines, air is removed through air outlet valves installed in panel radiators of the upper floor.

2.5.4 Valves

In heating systems, devices for their emptying should be provided. Each riser shall be provided with shut-off valves with connectors for connection of hoses. Horizontal heating systems should provide devices for their emptying on each floor, regardless of the storey of the building.

Balancing valves are installed on the risers to stabilize the pressure difference. Automatic balancing valves ASVP are used in conjunction with the ASVM shutoff valve. Manual USVI shutoff valves are installed on the staircases.

Adjustment of the heat transfer of panel radiators is carried out using RAWK temperature controllers from Danfoss.

3.1 Calculation of ventilation systems for the restaurant for 34 seats and hot shop

Design of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems shall be subject to SNiP 2.08.0289 * 1999 "Public Buildings and Structures" [12], SNiP 41012003. "Heating, ventilation and air conditioning" [2] and take into account numerous recommendations and departmental norms, including the "Manual on the design of catering enterprises for SNiP 2.0889 *" [4], developed by TsNIIEP of educational buildings.

The calculation of the supply and exhaust air volumes for the rooms of the dining room and the hot shop begins with a warm period, as the most unfavorable in terms of both the amount of heat and moisture released in the rooms.

The hot restaurant shop refers to heat-stressed rooms with significant heat emissions. Heat engineering calculation of ventilation systems of the hot shop will be carried out together with calculation of systems for the dining room [13 ].

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