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Gas supply of Volgograd district and bakery

  • Added: 29.07.2014
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Description

Gas supply to the district of Volgograd. Explanatory note, calculations, drawings.

Project's Content

Name Size
icon gazosnabzhenie_rajona_goroda_volgograda.zip
2 MB
icon diploma_Volgograd
icon POYASNILKA
icon POYASNILKA
icon bzhd.doc
290 KB
icon Volgograd_2007.doc
2 MB
icon OPUS.doc
373 KB
icon Economics_Local_estimate.doc
127 KB
icon DRAWINGS
icon DRAWINGS
icon automatic_equipment.dwg
63 KB
icon general_plan.bak
529 KB
icon GENERAL_PLAN.DWG
519 KB
icon Boiler_house.bak
158 KB
icon BOILER_HOUSE.dwg
192 KB
icon Kotelnaya1.bak
223 KB
icon Kotelnaya1.dwg
213 KB
icon WP_Sheet.bak
283 KB
icon WP_Sheet.dwg
281 KB
icon General_Data_.bak
67 KB
icon General_Data_.dwg
64 KB
icon scheme.bak
117 KB
icon scheme.dwg
72 KB
icon Installation.bak
183 KB
icon installation.dwg
171 KB
icon Hlebozav.bak
97 KB
icon Hlebozav.dwg
112 KB

Additional information

1.1 Gas supply of Volgograd city district

1.1.1 Characteristics of the area

The diploma project developed gas supply to the region of the city of Volga-Grad.

Climatic data of the area: air temperature of the coldest five-day period minus 25 ° С; air temperature of the coldest days minus 30 ° С; The absolute minimum air temperature is minus 35 ° C; the duration of the heating period was 177 days; the predominant direction of the winds is northeast.

There are three types of buildings in the district: zone A - 2-3-storey buildings with a low degree of urban planning value (population density 280 people/ha), zone B - 8-9-storey buildings with a high degree of urban planning value (population density 430 people/ha), zone B - 5-storey buildings with an average degree of urban planning value (population density 330 people/ha).

Gas supply of the district is carried out by gas of the Orenburg field.

Gas is used by household consumers, utilities and industrial enterprises.

Industrial enterprises include: a medical equipment plant with a gas flow rate of 3800 m3/h, a cannery with a gas flow rate of 4200 m3/h, a Tsaritsa factory with a gas flow rate of 1350 m3/h, a Confil confectionery factory with a gas flow rate of 2780 m3/h, Gormolzavod No. 3 gas 3170 m3/h.

The necessary heat for the needs of heating, ventilation and hot water supply of the district is generated by boiler houses located in a residential building .

Hydraulic calculation of low pressure gas pipelines

The calculation for the coverage areas of all GRP was carried out using the application program on the computer. The tasks of this program include: calculation of gas flows and pressure in gas networks of cities and settlements, optimal sub-selection of pipe size when designing a new gas network, the criterion of optimality is the sum of products of pipe lengths by their diameters, the program minimizes this criterion provided that the gas pressure at all points of the network does not fall below the specified value, optimal selection of pipe sizes in individual sections when calculating the existing gas network.

The design diagram of the low pressure gas pipeline distribution network is shown on the GoSN sheet 3 of the graphic part of the project.

1.1.8 Routing of the high pressure gas pipeline network

In the built-up part of cities, it is allowed to lay high-pressure pipelines of category II (up to 0.6 MPa). Gas pipelines are laid so as to supply gas to all consumers in the right amount in the shortest way, taking into account reliable consumption, for which backup of the network is provided. The network of high-pressure gas pipelines is designed single-ring with dead ends to concentrated consumers. It is recommended to lay high and low pressure gas pipelines in one trench. Therefore, when designing, where possible, gas pipelines are laid along the same driveways and streets. When designing ring networks, the network diagram is performed with two semi-rings approximately equal in length and load and a protection jumper.

Gas Flow Metering

On the territory of the plant, it is planned to take into account gas consumption separately by each consumer (workshop) and plant-wide accounting of gas consumption in PURG400 installed on the territory of the plant. Gas flow metering station consists of cabinet unit, process equipment for gas flow metering, two gas heaters with chimneys. Process equipment includes gas meter SG16M400 with gas flow rate of 2800 m3/h and hair filter FG100. The cabinet unit is a metal cabinet with thermal insulation. Doors are provided for maintenance of process equipment, for provision of natural ventilation - blinds, for heating of process equipment - heaters installed under the bottom of the cabinet unit.

The process equipment of the station consists of two lines: working and bypass. In order to clean the gas from mechanical impurities, a filter is provided in front of the meter. To correct the meter readings by the temperature and pressure of the transported gas, a pressure gauge and a self-recording pressure gauge are provided. A pressure gauge with valves is provided to visually monitor the gas pressure and measure the differential pressure across the filter. Gas is supplied to heaters via valve and gas pressure regulator. The bypass line is designed to ensure uninterrupted gas supply during repair of the working line and is equipped with a crane. For gas discharge during repair, a blowdown pipeline with a crane is provided.

1.2.4 Boiler house gas supply

The heating and production boiler house is located in a one-story freestanding building. The boiler house produces hot water with parameters of 9570 ° C for technological needs and for heating, ventilation and hot water supply of individual buildings and workshops located in the territory behind the water. Five automated hot water boilers "KSVa2.5Gs" with a capacity of 2500 kW are installed in the boiler room. The capacity of the boiler house is 12,500 MW.

Boilers "KSVa2.5Gs" are equipped with GAS 9 P/M t.s. modulation burners. with ramp DN 65 CTD. The range of gas flow by burners is from 187 to 525 m3/h. The burner is equipped with electric ignition and safety automation unit, which stops gas supply at:

Automation provides protection of the unit in the following emergency situations:

- lowering or increasing the permissible values of gas pressure before the burner;

- Flame extinguishing of the burner;

- loss of voltage in the electrical network;

- increase of furnace pressure above permissible value;

- deviation of air pressure in the air duct from the specified one;

- increase of resistance in the chimney;

- increase of water pressure at boiler outlet;

- increase of coolant temperature at boiler outlet.

The boiler burners are equipped with an additional valve tightness unit to monitor the tightness of the safety and adjustment valves of the gas ramp in case of closing of these valves. If a leak is detected, the burner is blocked.

To automatically shut off the gas supply to the boilers when the temperature of the environment in the room reaches 100 ° C in case of fire at the inlet gas line to the solenoid valve, the KTZ 001100/1.6 (f) thermal intake valve is provided.

The boiler room is provided with supply ventilation with a natural impulse, providing 3x air exchange per hour taking into account the supply air required for combustion. Inflow is carried out through the air intake unit provided in the wall behind the balls. Air removal is carried out by exhaust deflectors with a diameter of 500 mm, brought out above the roof.

The presence of natural gas (CH4) in the boiler house is monitored by RGD MET LP1 gas indicators. In case of danger, sound signal is output and gas supply is shut off by solenoid valve BH4N3. There are duplicate clock cycles for connecting secondary devices. "Alarm" signal is transmitted via modem communication to the dispatcher console.

Lightweight structures are provided due to glazing of windows.

Power supply to the boiler house is provided from the existing BRU. Supply voltage 380/220 V. Electric receivers of the boiler house are of the P category by reliability.

To ensure safety of maintenance personnel against electric shock, metal housings of electrical equipment are drilled. All normally non-current-carrying elements of electrical equipment, which may be energized in case of insulation damage, shall be occupied. Blowdown gas pipelines and gas equipment are subject to grounding, the grounding of which is required in accordance with the technical certificate for the product.

The gas pipeline is introduced into the boiler house directly into the room where the boilers are located. Common disconnecting device is installed at gas pipeline inlet. To reduce the pressure from high to medium and maintain it at a given level, the design provides for a gas control plant.

The gas pipeline inside the boiler house is laid at an elevation of 2.500 m, using supports and brackets. Disconnecting devices are installed on the branch to each boiler and at each burner. The boiler room is provided with a common blowdown gas pipeline from steel electric welded pipes with a diameter of 25x2.5 GOST 1070491. The boiler is blown through the crane and blowdown lines into the atmosphere.

Discharge blowdown pipelines (spark plugs) are provided on the boiler gas pipeline and common boiler gas pipelines, which are brought to a height of 1 m above the roof and are grounded. The gas pressure upstream of the burner is 6 kPa.

1.3 Carbon Dioxide Utilization Unit

1.3.1. Relevance of carbon dioxide utilization

Scientific and technological progress has caused many consequences that are considered environmental. There is a well-founded view that environmental deformation is a consequence of progress. First of all, this was observed with regard to the increase in concentrations of so-called "greenhouse" gases in the atmosphere. The anthropogenic impact of human activities on nature and the climate system exceeds the ability of the environment to neutralize this impact. The observed global climate change, the increase in the content of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere can be assessed as a signal of the inadmissibility of an increase in anthropogenic impact on the environment.

The sources of small gases, especially carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, are the burning of fossil fuels, biota. Carbon dioxide is not only a greenhouse gas. The intensity of photosynthesis depends on its content in the atmosphere, and scientists worry what it will be if the climate changes .

A large number of different scenarios for the development of energy emissions into the atmosphere have been developed, as well as the consequences of these impacts on a global scale. The concept of the greenhouse stereotype of global warming has become most widespread. There is a significant increase in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Measures such as energy efficiency and alternative energy sources can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, given that 85 per cent of the world's electricity needs are met through the use of fossil fuels, the rapid elimination of such fuels without causing significant damage to the global economy is unlikely.

Given Russia's domestic consumption of fuel and energy resources, at 6% of annual GDP growth, scientists forecast an increase in greenhouse gas emissions of 442.8 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2010, which will exceed by 18.2% greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. This level of increase in greenhouse gas emissions (mainly carbon dioxide and methane) necessitates the development of recycling techniques for these gases.

Methane is released as a result of agricultural activities (animal husbandry, rice cultivation), as well as due to the violation of the natural methane filter (from bacteria).

A significant amount of methane enters the atmosphere due to leaks from gas pipelines. Therefore, the World Bank approved the allocation of a $3.2 million grant to Russia for the implementation of a project to reduce natural gas leaks from pipelines to the atmosphere .

Carbon dioxide, the main component of greenhouse gases, is generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. Modelling data strongly show that the most likely limits for increasing the average annual average global temperature of surface air when the concentration of carbon dioxide doubles will be 1.5-4.5 ° C. In addition, the increased content of carbon dioxide in the air negatively affects the overall ecological state of the environment .

Scientists from different countries offer different technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. One of them is the capture and geological burial of CO2. The main idea of ​ ​ the proposed technologies is the capture of carbon dioxide formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and their burial in natural reservoirs for a period of up to several thousand years. It is proposed to use natural natural reservoirs for gas storage, which have a sufficient volume to accommodate emissions accumulated over many years. Carbon dioxide capture is the most appropriate method for enterprises with large stationary sources of emission and is based on the process of separating carbon dioxide from the gas stream, both before and after the combustion process.

The application of the proposed technologies requires considerable financial costs. In addition, gas storage in natural voids is a little-controlled process and depends not only on the tightness of the surrounding rocks, but also on processes occurring in the depths of the earth's crust. Carbon dioxide to be disposed of under certain conditions (disturbance of the containment) can become a source of environmental accident due to a sharp increase in the concentration of CO2 in the nearby area. The proposed technologies are not applicable to small emission sources and require underground natural reservoirs close to production.

1.3.2 Chlorella as a carbon dioxide recycler and a valuable biological product

One method of utilising carbon dioxide from combustion of natural gas is the Chlorella vulgaris C-1 microalgae plant.

This is a microalgae that is actively used as a bioactive food additive. It is rich in high-quality nutrients, especially proteins (65-72%) and β carotene; contain important plant pigments, including chlorophyll and phycocyanin, B vitamins, iron, magnesium, selenium, rare earth minerals, enzymes, nucleotides, linoleic and linolenic acids; one of the main sources of vitamin B12.

Chlorella is very active in destroying pathogenic organisms. Essence of technological effect of processes occurring in live chlorella culture lies in the fact that in process of life activity of microalgae there is death (death) of pathogenic bacteria. This is established for all pathogenic microbes of the intestinal group (pathogens of typhoid fever, paratyph A, paratyph B and all types of dysentery), as well as for polio virus and tuberculosis pathogens.

Microalgae, releasing molecular oxygen during photosynthesis, also provide the oxidation of ammonium salts into nitrites and nitrates, which are quickly absorbed by them to build their bodies; due to this, the nitrate concentration at the outlet approaches zero. The concentration of free oxygen in the solution reaches 10 mg/l.

Chlorella is actively used to improve the ecological condition of various reservoirs, including the internal reservoirs of the Volgograd region. Strains Clorella vulgaris BIN and IFR No. C111 have well-defined plankton properties and show antagonism to blue-green algae, which makes it possible to successfully use them in the fight against the so-called "flowering" of water.

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